What is Steel plate: Definition and 27 Discussions

Steel is an alloy made up of iron with typically a few tenths of a percent of carbon to improve its strength and fracture resistance compared to iron. Many other elements may be present or added. Stainless steels that are corrosion- and oxidation-resistant need typically an additional 11% chromium. Because of its high tensile strength and low cost, steel is used in buildings, infrastructure, tools, ships, trains, cars, machines, electrical appliances, and weapons. Iron is the base metal of steel. Depending on the temperature, it can take two crystalline forms (allotropic forms): body-centred cubic and face-centred cubic. The interaction of the allotropes of iron with the alloying elements, primarily carbon, gives steel and cast iron their range of unique properties.
In pure iron, the crystal structure has relatively little resistance to the iron atoms slipping past one another, and so pure iron is quite ductile, or soft and easily formed. In steel, small amounts of carbon, other elements, and inclusions within the iron act as hardening agents that prevent the movement of dislocations.
The carbon in typical steel alloys may contribute up to 2.14% of its weight. Varying the amount of carbon and many other alloying elements, as well as controlling their chemical and physical makeup in the final steel (either as solute elements, or as precipitated phases), slows the movement of those dislocations that make pure iron ductile, and thus controls and enhances its qualities. These qualities include the hardness, quenching behaviour, need for annealing, tempering behaviour, yield strength, and tensile strength of the resulting steel. The increase in steel's strength compared to pure iron is possible only by reducing iron's ductility.
Steel was produced in bloomery furnaces for thousands of years, but its large-scale, industrial use began only after more efficient production methods were devised in the 17th century, with the introduction of the blast furnace and production of crucible steel. This was followed by the open-hearth furnace and then the Bessemer process in England in the mid-19th
century. With the invention of the Bessemer process, a new era of mass-produced steel began. Mild steel replaced wrought iron. The German states saw major steel prowess over Europe in the 19th century.Further refinements in the process, such as basic oxygen steelmaking (BOS), largely replaced earlier methods by further lowering the cost of production and increasing the quality of the final product. Today, steel is one of the most common man made materials in the world, with more than 1.6 billion tons produced annually. Modern steel is generally identified by various grades defined by assorted standards organisations.

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  1. W

    Why a steel plate can shield magnetic field?

    If I put a very long steel plate above a coil with DC, the magnetic field above the plate will decrease because of the shielding of the steel plate. However, from the perspective of magnetci domain, some domains will be magnetized to turn to the direction of the magnetic field from the coil...
  2. Deckname

    A bullet ricochets off a steel plate problem

    I have calculated KE_i and KE_f, took the difference between the initial and final kinetic energy of the bullet to be equal to the work spent to overcome the friction, and divided it by the distance traveled, but arrive at around 20000N. The solution should be 9.5*10^7. Not sure what else to...
  3. N

    Formula to calculate the pull force between a magnet and a steel plate

    i have a neobydium magnet of grade n40 , the diameter of magnet is 15mm and thickness is 10 mm , now i want to calculate the pull force between this magnet and a steel plate when there is no gap between them ; & in second case i want to calculate the pull force when i put a 0.15mm copper plate...
  4. M

    A thin steel plate is in the shape of a half circle

    Homework Statement The half thin steel plate has a radius of 4 meters and a surface density of (3+r) kg/m^2, where r is the radial distance from the origin. Using calculus, find: A. its area B. its mass C. Its center of mass with respect to the origin shown, D. It's rotational inertia about the...
  5. Wookbert

    Holding down steel plate w/ multiple magnets: Does orientati

    The picture below shows an image of a bed from a 3d printer, which I intend to equip with an array of 15 x 3 mm Neodym magnets to hold down a steel plate. The steel plate itself is not and can not be equipped with magnets. Theres a heated aluminium bed between magnets and steel plate and the...
  6. DevonZA

    Tensile stress in perforated steel plate

    Homework Statement Two lengths of steel plate 100mm wide and 15mm thick are riveted together by a single 18mm diameter rivet. If the joint carries a tensile load of 8kN calculate: a) The shear stress in the rivet b) The tensile stress in the perforated plate Homework Equations stress = force...
  7. J

    Calculating stress and deflection in steel plate

    Hiya, I'm been calculating stress and deflection in rectangle steel plate, I've been using two methods to see if I get the same results but i get different results. I want to confirm the methods I'm using and if I'm using them correctly. I have attached photos of my calculations, any...
  8. Pattonias

    Aspect Ratio of Continuous Cast Rolled Steel

    We have a requirement that if our pipe is going to be fabricated from plate, then it must have a larger than 6-to-1 reduction from the original conventionally cast ingot or continuously cast slab. It is not specified whether this would be hot/cold rolling, but we figured that .5 inch plate...
  9. Arlan

    Calculating Rebound Height for a Ball Colliding with Steel Plate

    Question: The coefficient of restitution for ball colliding with steel is 0.95. If ball is dropped from height h sub o above steel plate, to what height will the ball rebound? Please help me with this one, Is there a formula for this? all I know is e equals velocity of the first object...
  10. Gingerbunny82

    Help me reinforce this steel platform :)

    Hey folks, I'm building this steel platform to support a furnace, the furnace will weigh about 350kg and cover approximately the area shown below: The platform itself is mild steel sheet, 100cm x 100cm x 4mm thick. Each castor is rated for 300kg each. The problem I'm having is that even with...
  11. R

    How to find thickness of steel plate

    I have a 300 mm diameter hole in the ground surrounded by concrete. This hole will be covered by a steel plate. I need to get a machine of weight 2.5 tonnes across this hole safely without any bending of the steel plate. How would i calculate the required thickness of the plate? Thank you Ron.
  12. J

    How much will a steel plate bend?

    Hello, I am trying to figure out how to determine how much a simple steel plate will bend with "x" amount of weight on it. I have searched the internet looking for some good descriptive information for my studies and am having a hard time figuring it out. I understand that it is probably...
  13. A

    Thermal Expansion of a circular steel plate

    Homework Statement A circular steel plate of radius 15 cm is cooled from 350 C to 20 C. By what percentage does the plates area decorate ? Homework Equations A=∏r^2 Af = Ai (1+2∂ΔT) specific heat of steel = 12 x 10^-6 The Attempt at a Solution r = 15 cm = .15 m Ai = .070685 m^2...
  14. N

    Heating a steel plate with a hole in it

    Homework Statement If a steel plate with a hole of 10 cm in diameter is heated 35 degrees kelvin, what will the new diameter be? ##\alpha_L = 13 \cdot 10^{−6} K^{−1}##Homework Equations ##\Delta L = \alpha_L \cdot \Delta T \cdot L## The Attempt at a Solution If I understand the...
  15. M

    Question in (Conduction ) A steel plate 2 cm thick

    Hi A steel plate 2 cm thick is maintained at a temperature of 550 C at one face and 50 C on the other . The thermal conductivity of stainless stress at 300 C is 19.1 W/mK . Compute the heat transferred through the material per unit length ? Answer : - we have q = - k . A ...
  16. V

    Heating a small steel plate to high temperature

    Hello, For my setup I'm looking for a method to heat a small stainless steel plate (50x50x10mm(2x2x0.4 inches), AISI 304) to 900ºC (1652ºF). The plate is fixed onto the frame, so it can't be removed. I've found some induction heaters, but they were all too expensive. Anyone got some...
  17. A

    Finding Center of Mass of 800g Steel Plate Triangle

    Homework Statement An 800 g steel plate has the shape of the isosceles triangle shown in the figure. What are the x and y coordinates of the center of mass? https://www.physicsforums.com/attachment.php?attachmentid=13559&d=1208292919 Homework Equations x=1/M ∫ x dm [b]3. The...
  18. D

    Calculating Moment Capacity of A36 steel plate

    I am using an 8" steel plate as a beam that will undergo moment forces and deflections. I am not sure how to calculate the maximum moment capacity of a plate like this. I think that the deflection would = Fb*L^3/(48*E*I). Does this look correct? I know how to calculate the max moment in the...
  19. G

    How thick should a steel plate be to support a load of 1300 N in a 3 point bend?

    I'm using the basic deflection equation to determine how thick a plate of steel would have to be to support a load of approximately 1300 N in a 3 point bend, with surface dimensions of of 420 x 630 mm. I = bh3/12; δ = FL3/(C1EI); Esteel = 200 GPa = 200 N/mm; δ = 50 mm (arbitrary); h3 =...
  20. D

    Wind Turbine DIY Project for School - Steel Plate vs Non Magnetic Plate

    i don't know if i am in right part of forum. i want to build some sort of wind turbine for a school project. all the diy project are 6 or 9 coils with 8 or 12 magnets. the coils are on non magnetic board and the magnets on steel plate. why on steel, the steel plate increase the total...
  21. F

    Evaluating the capacity of steel plate

    Hello All. I'm trying to evaluate a design based on first principles. I have 2 trusses made from RHS (simple A frame) between which I wish to tech-screw a sheet of 2.9 mm galvanised sheet. Loading will primarily be from material (i.e. soil to a max depth of 400 mm) being placed on the...
  22. M

    Winterize truck with steel plate?

    Hi Kind of a random question, I know, I just think this is a great place to get a answer. Anyway, I have a single cab pickup truck. So of course I have a very light back-end, to compensate for this in the winter for more traction I have been putting in a solid steel plate my Dad bought...
  23. M

    Find tension in angled cables holding steel plate

    Homework Statement I found that the steel plate weighs 23.1 kN from using the volume and density of steel. The length of L1=3.2m, L2= 3.9m. The angle on the left, theta, equals 94.4 degrees and alpha equals 54.9 degrees. I am just confused on how to find the tension in the cables. If someone...
  24. F

    Determine the thickness of steel plate (based on S275 steel)

    Hi I needed to design for a steel plate of S275 steel (275 N/mm2) that will resist a tensile force = 2 x 65 kN = 130 kN. The steel plate must not bend due to this tensile force = 130 kN. And I need to determine the minimum steel plate thickness that will resist the bending (due to the...
  25. B

    Thermal Expansion of a steel plate

    Homework Statement A steel plate has a circular hole with a diameter of 1.000 cm. In order to drop a Pyrex glass marble 1.003 cm in diameter through the hole in the plate, how much must the temperature of the system be raised? (Assume the plate and the marble always have the same temperature)...
  26. K

    Mini Cathodically-Protected steel plate

    Mini Cathodically-Protected steel plate... Hi guys/gals: I am doing a project on cathodic protection. If I have a steel and zinc plate, does bolting them together with nothing at the interface suffice as Cathodic Protection? It looks too simple to be true. So I need your help to validate the...
  27. S

    Calculating Force Needed to Distort Steel Plate

    A steel plate of 10 cm square or (100 sq cm) is .25cm thick. How much force is need to distort its edges by 0.04 cm. sheer modulus for steel is 80 * 10^9 n/m^2, Plz Help Thanx