What is Fraunhofer: Definition and 47 Discussions

The Fraunhofer Society (German: Fraunhofer-Gesellschaft zur Förderung der angewandten Forschung e. V., "Fraunhofer Society for the Advancement of Applied Research") is a German research organization with 72 institutes spread throughout Germany, each focusing on different fields of applied science (as opposed to the Max Planck Society, which works primarily on basic science). With some 28,000 employees, mainly scientists and engineers and with an annual research budget of about €2.8 billion it is the biggest organization for applied research and development services in Europe.
Some basic funding for the Fraunhofer Society is provided by the state (the German public, through the federal government together with the states or Länder, "owns" the Fraunhofer Society), but more than 70% of the funding is earned through contract work, either for government-sponsored projects or from industry.It is named after Joseph von Fraunhofer who, as a scientist, an engineer, and an entrepreneur, is said to have superbly exemplified the goals of the society.
The organization has seven centers in the United States, under the name "Fraunhofer USA", and three in Asia. In October 2010, Fraunhofer announced that it would open its first research center in South America.
Fraunhofer UK Research Ltd was established as a legally independent affiliate along with its Fraunhofer Centre for Applied Photonics, in Glasgow, Scotland, in March 2012.

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  1. PhysicsRock

    2D Fraunhofer-diffraction with infinitely long slits

    My issue here is the fact that the slits are supposed to infinite in the ##y##-direction. With what's given in the assignment, I'd define the apparatus function ##a(x,y)## as $$ a(x,y) = \begin{cases} 1 & , \, ( 9d \leq |x| \leq 10d ) \wedge (y \in \mathbb{R}) \\ 0 & , \, \text{else}...
  2. P

    Treating Oblique Incidence as a Fraunhofer Diffraction Problem

    I'm not sure where to start on this as I've only used Fraunhofer when it involves slits, not mirrors. Would I say it was a single slit problem so that D = width of slit (but this doesn't make sense to me because the light is reflecting not transmitting? Or an infinitely narrow slit hence nothing...
  3. P

    Plotting a Bessel Function for Diffraction (Fraunhofer)

    From my understanding of diffraction pattern is supposed to result in something like this However when I plot it I get the central peak without the ripples (even when broadening the view). My result My code is as follows %1) Define the grid. Define vectors so that they include 0...
  4. M

    Fourier transforms, convolution, and Fraunhofer diffraction

    I've been exposed to this notion in multiple classes (namely math and physics) but can't find any details about how one would actually calculate something using this principle: Diffraction in optics is closely related to Fourier transforms and finding the Fraunhofer diffraction of an aperture...
  5. S

    Fraunhofer diffraction pattern

    Homework Statement A square aperture with a side of length 0.5 mm is illuminated with light of wavelength 550 nm. At what distance from the aperture would the Fraunhofer diffraction pattern have a central maximum with a width also equal to 0.5 mm? What can you say about the Fraunhofer condition...
  6. S

    Fraunhofer Diffraction Pattern Ratio of Power Densities

    Homework Statement Find an approximate expression for the ratio of the power densities at the principal maximum to that at the first secondary maximum on either side, in the Fraunhofer diffraction pattern of an N-slit multiple aperture. Assume that the slits are much narrower than their...
  7. R

    MATLAB Fraunhofer diffraction simulation in Matlab

    Hello, below is the screenshot from the book INTRODUCTION TO MODERN DIGITAL HOLOGRAPHY With MATLAB (TING-CHUNG POON, JUNG-PING LIU). This book is free to download. There is a script for Fraunhofer diffraction pattern and equation 1.40 is Fraunhofer diffraction formula in terms of Fourier...
  8. Decimal

    [Optics] Find maximum order number, Fraunhofer diffraction

    Homework Statement This problem concerns a single slit diffraction experiment where Fraunhofer diffraction is observed on an observing screen via a positive converging lens with focal distance f. The diffraction pattern has a central maximum of width dy, and the vacuum wavelength of the light...
  9. S

    I Plotting a far-field Intensity distribution

    Hey, I'm attempting to plot a far-field intensity distribution using theoretical values, however I'm having difficulty with calculating the intensity using the following equation: $$I = I_o \frac {sin^{2}{b}}{b^{2}} \frac {sin^{2}{Ny}}{sin^{2}{y}}$$ where: $$y = \frac {kdX}{2f}$$ $$b =...
  10. S

    Fraunhofer diffraction experiment- neural density filters

    I'm currently carrying out an experiment with Fraunhofer diffraction. It involves shining a laser beam through neural density filters, a lens and a diffraction grating, to create a diffraction pattern which is then picked up with a CCD camera, to find the intensity of the maximal peaks. However...
  11. Z

    I Order Maxima under the Fraunhofer Envelope

    Let's say we are using a spectrometer to observe the order spectrum of mercury, a polychromatic source. Each order contains a an array of colour bands. In the case of the following image: http://imgur.com/a/bnm9r , I was wondering if each Fraunhofer envelope represented one order, (m = 1 , 2 ...
  12. D

    Single Slit Fraunhofer Diffraction

    Just to clarify, this isn't homework. I took an Optics course a few years ago, but in the time between then and now, I've lost all my notes. Suppose we have an infinitely tall slit of width a and a parallel screen a distance r_0 away. Let the x axis be parallel to the width of the slit, with...
  13. P

    I Fraunhofer Lines: Outdoor Photo Through Bandpass Filter

    If you take an outdoor photo through a bandpass filter that only let's light through in a Fraunhofer line would it be completely dark, like night? Or would it have some daytime illumination?
  14. Y

    Far Field Approximation After a Prism

    Homework Statement A wave with an initial profile ##U(z)=Ae^{ik_0z}e^{-\frac{z^2}{2\sigma^2}}## is traveling in the z direction (yes, the Gaussian profile and the optical axis are not perpendicular). It then passes through a prism with apex angle ##\alpha## and refractive index...
  15. Anton Alice

    Fraunhofer Lines: Absorption & Re-emission in Solar Atmosphere

    Hello people, I was wondering, why the absence of certain frequencies in the sun spectrum (fraunhofer lines) is so strong? In all pictures I have seen so far these lines are very dark, so there is nothing reaching us at these frequencies. Why is that? The absorption occurs in the solar...
  16. C

    Can Fraunhofer Single Slit formula be used in this case?

    A question like : A very thin layer of oil is on the surface of a puddle of water. If the layer of oil is 400 nm thick, what frequency of light in the visible part of the spectrum will most strongly be reflected? Given the index of refraction of oil is 1.4. Can we think of the layer as a single...
  17. A

    Single slit diffraction confusion

    I've found this a very confusing thing:when we locate the second dark fringes above and below the central maxima,we divide the slit into four parts and claim that pairs of waves interfere destructively as the path difference would be wavelength/2.But what if we just divided it into two parts and...
  18. N

    Understanding Fraunhofer Diffraction Patterns of Circles and Slots

    Hi, Why is that when a diffraction pattern is created through small circular opening you achieve a diffraction pattern like this; But when we see images of a slot we see this; From; http://hyperphysics.phy-astr.gsu.edu/hbase/phyopt/fraungeo.html#c1 Notice how the diffraction is linear -...
  19. Prashasti

    Fraunhofer Diffraction Doubt

    Homework Statement A monochromatic source of light 'S' is placed at the principal focus of a convex lens 'L1'. A parallel beam of light or a plane wave front is incident on the narrow slit represented by AB (its width - 'a') Homework Equations So, what my teacher did was, She showed...
  20. W

    Oversampling and phase retrieval in Fraunhofer diffraction

    I am a Grade 11 student and am working on a physics research about Fraunhofer diffraction. I have 2 very basic questions (maybe kind of unprofessional). Hope someone can help. 1.Suppose a beam of coherent, monochromatic, parallel light penetrates an object, and a diffraction pattern forms on...
  21. W

    MATLAB MATLAB Simulation of Fraunhofer Diffraction

    Hello, I am using MATLAB to simulate a Fraunhofer diffraction pattern for a given aperture, but I have a little question. Hope someone can help. Sorry I am just a high school student and does not completely understand all mathematic deductions about Fraunhofer Diffraction on Wikipedia. I...
  22. M

    Fraunhofer diffraction for a small obstracle

    [b]1. Two towers built on hills are 50 km apart and the line joining those passes above a hill midway between them. what is the longest wavelength of radio waves which can be sent between the towers without serious diffraction effects caused by the central hill? [b]2. Is the width of the...
  23. J

    Simulating the Interference Pattern of Fraunhofer Diffraction

    http://img42.imageshack.us/img42/8280/oahh.png [Broken] http://img109.imageshack.us/img109/4669/1ypb.png [Broken] http://img208.imageshack.us/img208/8804/32kf.png [Broken]
  24. B

    Fraunhofer diffraction and convolution of two aperture functions

    Hello, I'm having some trouble understanding the concept of two function convolution in Fraunhofer diffraction. Let's say I have an aperture function in the shape of some cosine function (which is always above zero), and I want to calculate the transmission function if I only illuminate 3...
  25. Z

    Confusion about Fraunhofer Diffraction

    I'm looking at the explanation for single slit Fraunhofer diffraction, in particular the location of the intensity minima. a is the slit width, lambda is the wavelength and theta is the angle. By dividing the slit into two parts and viewing the wavefront as a sum of many small sources i can see...
  26. E

    Understanding Fraunhofer Diffraction: Classical vs. Quantum Interpretation

    In single slit fraunhofer diffraction, only the light which goes near the slit is diffracted... If it goes just through the middle it will not be... If the slit is really small would light be diffracted even if it goes through middle?And do all light waves that go near the slit diffract? Does...
  27. Z

    Fraunhofer Lines Essay/General Data Analysis

    Hi, I'm doing an essay on how accurately can a student measure fraunhofer lines in the sun? I've done the experiment, gotten good results, wrote about the equipment, the procedure etc... However I'm not sure what to do now, and I need to make this essay longer, and my data analysis is a...
  28. P

    Fraunhofer diffraction integra theorem

    Homework Statement This is not an actual problem, it is a general matter about the equation that describes the Fraunhofer diffraction; So, for a given aperture(A), which is evenly illuminated from the left(let's say), the Electric Field complex amplitude at a point P(on the right-the screen)...
  29. A

    A Fraunhofer diffraction pattern is produce on a screen

    Homework Statement A Fraunhofer diffraction pattern is produced on a screen 218 cm from a single slit. The distance from the center of the central maximum to the first-order maximum is 7620 times the wavelength (lambda). Calculate the slit width. Answer in __m Homework Equations...
  30. T

    Chi-Square in Fraunhofer Approximation Lab Report

    Hello there if anyone could help me out with this question I would very much appreciate it. (Note this is my first post) For my optics lab Fraunhofer(single slit) diffraction patterns were observed(measured distance to screen(x) and had readings for intensity in the y direction.) I...
  31. P

    Intensity of light in Fraunhofer diffraction pattern

    Homework Statement The intensity of light I in the fraunhofer diffraction patter of a single slit is I=I0(sin\gamma/\gamma)2 where \gamma=\piasin\theta/\lambda Show that the equation for the vaules of \gamma at which I is maximum is tan\gamma=\gamma well, intensity is...
  32. zimo

    Fraunhofer diffraction, multiple slits

    Homework Statement A system consisting of 5-slit (completely identical) that the distance between their centres, d, is four times the width of a slit, b. Calculate the relation between the major maximum at the center and the next maximum (can be given that position of the maximum is...
  33. F

    Fraunhofer (far field) diffraction

    Im having difficulties showing the spatial distribution of optical intensities observed in the far field region, due to fraunhofer diffraction. I have an arpeture function that is in the form of a delta functon, and i understand that with the delta function situated at the origin the observed...
  34. T

    Dark spot in Fraunhofer diffraction

    Hi, I've been doing Fraunhofer diffraction and I have been getting dark spots in the middle if my patterns, not predicted by the Fourier transform of the aperture. I don't think it's babinets principle and effect is stronger near the edges of the slits. Any ideas? Thanks
  35. D

    Fraunhofer Diffraction for two unequal slit widths

    Homework Statement Consider a Fraunhofer diffraction pattern due to two unequal slits. Let a and b be the unequal slit widths and c the distance between their centers. Derive an expression for the intensity of the pattern for and diffraction angle \theta, assuming the arrangement to be...
  36. B

    Fraunhofer diffraction and Fourier Transform

    Homework Statement In lab, I obtained a single slit diffraction pattern and recorded an image of it. The slit width is known to be 0.000134 m. We are supposed to compare our experimentally-obtained diffraction pattern to the result of taking a Discrete Fourier Transform of the aperture in...
  37. L

    Fitting Fraunhofer Diffraction Data

    Homework Statement Is there a good way to do a fit. The fft looks simple: I am trying to fit data from my experiment to the very nonlinear nested sine function given as equation 3 here: http://www.physics.umd.edu/courses/Phys375/HillSpring10/Labs/Lab5Diffraction.pdf Homework...
  38. R

    Depth of Field needed for Fraunhofer Pattern

    Say we define Depth of Field, DOF, as max de-focus allowed for decent Fraunhofer Pattern. Then what's the DOF of a (positive) lens with focal length f?
  39. A

    Absorbing Material Over a Slit in Deriving Double Slit Fraunhofer Interfernce Pattern

    In class we have been deriving the Fraunhofer interference pattern for a double slit experiment. I now have a question of having to derive it if one of the slits is covered with an absorbing material. I have got the equation out but I am missing a constant K... Homework Statement We have two...
  40. T

    Fraunhofer diffraction and Fourier transform

    a Fourier transform of an aperature results the pattern of the fraunhofer diffraction fringes at infinity of light passing that aperature. How can we understand that point physically? I tried much to think about it! but no use. Everyone, Please give your thought about this, so I can have...
  41. B

    General questions about Fraunhofer diffraction

    Ok, so my book explains single-slit diffraction like this: For a single slit with width a, for every point on the wave front there is another point a/2 distance away that it can be paired with. 1) If the distance (a2)*sin(theta) is half a wavelength, the interference is destructive. So...
  42. G

    Fraunhofer Diffraction Doubt

    The relation between the angles for which the minima occurs for a Fraunhofer diffraction(parallel rays, large separation between screen and slit) is derived by using the destructive interference criterion. Why isn't there any mention of the criterion for maxima? The results obtained from the...
  43. N

    Deriving the formula for double slit diffraction as in Young from Fraunhofer

    Homework Statement I apologize for the blurriness in my title, I couldn't find anything better to fit within the length limit. The problem I'm stuck with, paraphrased, is to derive the formula for the diffraction pattern of a double slit, as found in the Young experiment, from the Fraunhofer...
  44. Q

    Fraunhofer intensity pattern

    Homework Statement Derive the equation describing the Fraunhofer intensity pattern from a single slit of width b centered at the origin. Then show that the same intensity pattern is obtained for a slit that is not centred at the origin (i.e assume the slit edges are at x = a - b/2 and x = a +...
  45. A

    Fraunhofer diffraction

    We look at a lamp at a distance through a slit form the halves of a broken razor blade and a diffraction pattern is observed. My questions are: 1. Is it a Fraunhofer diffraction? Our eyes are close to the slit, but one of the conditions for fraunhofer diffraction to occur is the screen...
  46. R

    Incidence angle in a Fraunhofer single slit problem

    I have to find the first minima for a single slit diffraction problem. I know the wave length and the slit size, there is an unknow angle between the incidence wave and the perpendicular line to the slit plane. I konw that i have to use the Fraunhofer euqtion for a single slit, i already have...
  47. R

    Fraunhofer Diffraction Proving

    I am to prove that in y = R * m * (wavelength) / a where y is the distance between two minima, a is the width of the slit, R is the length between the screen and the slit grating, and m is an integer which is the order of the minima. I know I have to use the paraxial approximation...