# What is Column: Definition and 333 Discussions

A column or pillar in architecture and structural engineering is a structural element that transmits, through compression, the weight of the structure above to other structural elements below. In other words, a column is a compression member. The term column applies especially to a large round support (the shaft of the column) with a capital and a base or pedestal, which is made of stone, or appearing to be so. A small wooden or metal support is typically called a post, and supports with a rectangular or other non-round section are usually called piers.
For the purpose of wind or earthquake engineering, columns may be designed to resist lateral forces. Other compression members are often termed "columns" because of the similar stress conditions. Columns are frequently used to support beams or arches on which the upper parts of walls or ceilings rest. In architecture, "column" refers to such a structural element that also has certain proportional and decorative features. A column might also be a decorative element not needed for structural purposes; many columns are engaged, that is to say form part of a wall. A long sequence of columns joined by an entablature is known as a colonnade.

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1. ### Engineering Natural frequency of clamped-hinged column

I have a column clamped at the bottom and for the top, I use hinged BC but free at the Y axis. I have the dimension and the material properties. How to calculate its natural frequency?
2. ### I Proof of Column Extraction Theorem for Finding a Basis for Col(A)

Theorem: The columns of A which correspond to leading ones in the reduced row echelon form of A form a basis for Col(A). Moreover, dimCol(A)=rank(A).
3. ### Basic Stress and Strain question -- Rock on top of a vertical column

a) I can find the compressive strain on the aluminium column using the formula ##\sigma = E\epsilon## as we know ##\sigma = F/A##. The area of the column is ##A = \pi r^2 = 0.126m^2## and the force on the column is ##F = 300*(9.8)N = 2940N##. The stress therefore is ##\sigma =...
4. ### How to Calculate how much a column buckles?

I’m am looking for how to calculate the new horizontal and vertical “size” of a column based on the material and how much force is applied from the top/ends. I have 3D printed TPU pillars that are made to compress and mold to a shape, but I am trying to figure out how much they will compress...
5. ### How to read a column of data into Fortran without arrays? (Fortran 77)

TL;DR Summary: I am beginning research as an undergrad in Physics and have an example file I must analyze for the mean of each column. I cannot use arrays. I need to take the sum of a column of data. Hi all, I am new to fortran and programming in general, but I'm having issues with creating a...
6. ### How much air pressure is needed to push water up a column?

Hello, I was creating a device to move water up a tube using air pressure, but I am not certain how much pressure I would need. I attempted to create it using 5 gallon buckets, however I was unable to apply the needed pressure needed to the airtight container. The image below is what I have...
7. ### Calculating pressure of air pocket in a pressurized water column

Looking for some guidance in calculating pressure of air pocket in pressurized water column. Example: 2" vertical pipe, capped, with 2" of air and 40 psi water applied.
8. ### Comp Sci Is it addition or xor in AES mix column?

https://www.networkdls.com//Articles/AESbyExample.pdf I'm confused because there are lots of XOR in this case. And I am not very technically aware when we'd XOR vs when we'd add. I just follow the guidelines given in standards. But here I got confused in page 9 of that pdf. When we do B7+4B...
9. ### Load bearing capacity of a tall column

Could someone please tell me the load bearing capacity of an 8" x 8" x 10 foot tall white oak column. The oak is fully cured and would be placed on an appropriately sized concrete footing. It would be mechanically fastened to a beam that it would be supporting. Any assistance or explanation...
10. ### Maple GNUPLOT 'file1.dat 2nd column' vs 'file2.dat 1st column'

How can I plot 'file1.dat 2nd column' vs 'file2.dat 1st column' in Gnuplot? If someone can help me with what code I need to write to do it, it will be very helpful.
11. ### Engineering What is a low slenderness ratio for a column?

What counts as a low slendernous ratio. i was look at column slenderness ratios and stress, it was talking about a column with slenderness ratio of 80-90 and stress of 300MPA. Is 300MPA low or high stress. Wanted to know so i can say wheather the low ratio says that it will fail at high or...
12. ### Chiral Column Chromatography

"Resolution of enantiomers can be accomplished using column chromatography. When enantiomers are passed through a traditional column, they travel at the same rate because their properties are identical. However, if a chiral adsorbent is used, the enantiomers interact with the adsorbent...
13. ### MHB Row echelon form : Can the first column contain only zeros?

Hey! :giggle: Let \begin{equation*}A=\begin{pmatrix}0 & -2 & 2 & 0 & 0 & -6 \\ 0 & 0 & 0 & 1 & 1 & 3\\ 0 & 0 & 0 & 1 & -1 & -1 \\ 0 & 1 & -1 & 0 & 2 & 7\\ 0 & 3 & -3 & 1 & 2 & 14\end{pmatrix}, \ b_1=\begin{pmatrix}0 \\ 0 \\ 0 \\ 0 \\ 0\end{pmatrix} , \ b_2=\begin{pmatrix}-2 \\ 1 \\ -1 \\ 3 \\...
14. ### Engineering Compression buckling of column

Hi, all. The top beam is subjected to uniformly distributed load. FYI, the column is 5m in length. As you can see, the major axis of column is connected to the beam with moment connection on top. However, in the minor axis of column, there's nothing to connecting them.For the major axis, the...
15. ### MHB Row and column transformations

I am stuck on this problem and keep going in a cycle coming back to the same state and would like to get hints on how to proceed. $$A$$ is a $$R^{m*n}$$ matrix and $$B$$ is a $$R^{n*p}$$ matrix. $$I_{n}$$ is the $$n*n$$ identity matrix. Use elementary row and column operations to...
16. ### Construction Column load bearing calculations

Are there any websites that might have load bearing calculations for metal square tube columns. Thanks in advance...
17. ### Column with eccentric load - can it buckle?

Hi, this question is rather simple but it makes me confused after several discussions with friends. Can columns supporting some structure and placed on its edges buckle due to weight of the structure ? Here are the particular cases I'm talking about: 1) vertical pressure vessel's legs 2)...
18. ### Show that this column matrix is not a vector

Summary:: I am suppose to show that this columns matrix does not transform as a vector. In another words, it is not in fact a vector. I think this become trivial if we get the rotation matrix composed of Euler angles. But, i think that it is not the best way to solve this problem, and i...
19. ### Tubular Column Moment of Inertia

Can anyone explain why the moment of inertia for a tubular column in that textbook is like so? (take a look at the attachments). It should be (I = MR^2), as far as I know.
20. ### LaTeX Best way to merge columns and rows in tables with column separators

For merging columns, I generally use the multicolumn command, while for merging rows, I use the multirow command from the multirow package. The above combination works great if there is no separator in any of the merged columns. If, however, one or more columns have separators, the code breaks...
21. E

### B Do column 'vectors' need a basis?

Consider the transformation of the components of a vector ##\vec{v}## from an orthonormal coordinate system with a basis ##\{\vec{e}_1, \vec{e}_2, \vec{e}_3 \}## to another with a basis ##\{\vec{e}'_1, \vec{e}'_2, \vec{e}'_3 \}## The transformation equation for the components of ##\vec{v}##...
22. ### Outdoor project - adding stability by filling a column

I have a square column to be filled with gravel to avoid being moved or tipped over by wind. The column is about 1 ft x 1 ft x 8ft tall. It is sheathed with a covering and hollow inside. What is the optimum fill height to avoid the wind tipping over an unattached single column. And the...
23. ### I What is column density in astronomy?

What is column density in astronomy?
24. ### Comp Sci Subtracting the mean from a column in an array

import numpy as np a=np.array([[1,2,3], [4,5,6]]) print(s) print() print(a.mean()) I know how to take the mean of the entire array. However I am having trouble understanding what it means to subtract the mean from each column. Does this mean subtract it from each element in the column? Thank...
25. ### Buoyant force and a water column

Recently I viewed the Searaser video at After watching it, I feel the numbers given in the video could be wrong but not sure. So I'd like to know how I can calculate the amount of water pushed by the Searaser device at some height in one wave shot e.g. at 100 ft, 200 ft and 300 ft above sea...
26. ### Engineering Mass Transfer in a wetted-wall column

Please can someone assist me as this particular question seems to have me completely confounded?
27. ### Python 2.7 Pandas BSoup4 Scrape: Outputs Column Names but not the Data

Hi, trying to scrape a page : https://www.hofstede-insights.com/wp-json/v1/country I get the list of columns I want, but not the data assigned to the columns in the page that is being scraped. from bs4 import BeautifulSoup import pandas as pd import requests url =...
28. ### Pressure generated by a column of air

Applying Bernoulli, Does the term ρ*g*h matters ? I am trying to select a fan
29. ### HPLC column separating high polar compounds

Which HPLC column can separate high polar compounds?
30. ### Calculating the Length of a Water Column in a Beaker

Homework Statement a Basin contains water , a beaker is put upside down to a depth of 3m inside it , if the volume of the beaker is 250 cm^3 . and its C.S area = 200 cm2 calculate the length of the water column which rises inside the baker , supposed that their is no air leakage from the...
31. ### MHB 290 Expanding this determinant about the the second column....

where does 32 (red) come from ? nevermind looks its (-8)(4)=-32 but will probable have more ? on this example
32. ### 3rd harmonic of a column of air with one end enclosed

Homework Statement https://imgur.com/lGas78X The solution to this question says 450Hz. However, when I attempted to compute the frequency using the wave equation and find the normal mode solutions, I get 750Hz 2. Homework Equations I suspect that the solution could be wrong, is that the...
33. ### B Finding Bases for Row and Column Spaces

I'm doing problems on finding row and column spaces. My textbook tells me to find the echelon form of the matrix, and then to identify the bases. My question is, can I reduce the matrix to reduced echelon form to get the bases? I have the same question about bases for the solution space.
34. ### MHB Are the Vectors S and T in the column of (ABC)

I have no clue how to decode this question or do it but I was given the vectors S=[1 1 0] and T=[-1 0 1] and asked to determine whether or not they are in the column space of ABC when A, B and C are 3x3 matrices. My prof hinted to "think of rank and nullity", can someone please point me in the...
35. ### Fortran Reading a specific column from .csv into fortran

Hi, I am using fortran to read specific columns from a .csv file. the rows in each columns are different, so I wish to read columns wise with a do loop. say, I wish to read from A1 to D20 initially(4 columns of 20 rows), then later f1 to h35 (3 columns, 35 rows). how do I read particular columns...
36. ### Insights AVX-512 Programming: Extracting Column Subtotals from a Table

Greg Bernhardt submitted a new blog post AVX-512 Programming: Extracting Column Subtotals from a Table Continue reading the Original Blog Post.
37. ### MHB E1.4b Determinant with zero column

$$\left[\begin{array}{rrrrr} 1 &0 &2 &1\\ 1 &1 &0 &1\\ 1 &3 &4 &1\\ -1 &-3 &-4 &-1 \end{array}\right]=\color{red}{0}$$Answer (red) via W|Aok I did not do any operations on this Since by observation the 4th column can become all zero'showever didn't see anything in the book to support...
38. ### MHB LR decomposition with column pivoting

Hey! :o We have the matrix $$A=\begin{pmatrix}1 & -2 & 1 \\ 3 & -1 & 2 \\ -2 & -2 & 1\end{pmatrix}$$ I want to apply the LR decomposition with column pivoting. First we permutate the first two rows and we get $$A=\begin{pmatrix}3 & -1 & 2 \\ 1 & -2 & 1 \\ -2 & -2 & 1\end{pmatrix}$$ Then we...
39. ### Magnetic field for thin plasma column confinement

I have a thin copper tube of 4.4mm inner diameter (inside a long ionizer plasma cannon) and I want to fill in with hydrogen plasma fully ionized at low temperature (100eV), what is recommended magnetic field to have the ions there without touching tha walls? The plasma life is about 0.5 seconds
40. ### Column buckling in a pin jointed structure

<< Mentor Note -- thread moved from the schoolwork forums to the ME forum because it's more of a general question >> Hi, in these column bucking notes (photo attached below) it says that bar BC will buckle first out of all the other bars in compression, but it does not explain why. I know it...
41. ### Resonant Lengths in open air column question

Homework Statement An organ pipe 1.2m long and open at both ends produces a note with the fundamental frequency. If the speed of sound in air is 345 m/s, what is the fundamental frequency? Homework Equations Wave equation (f = v/lambda) The Attempt at a Solution My textbook solves the problem...
42. ### Why Does Covering One End of a Pipe Change the Pitch of the Sound Produced?

Homework Statement [/B] When a stream of air is directed over the end of a 40 cm long piece of plastic pipe, open at both ends, a sound is produced. (a) Explain why this occurs (b) If the bottom end of the pipe is covered, what will happen to the pitch of the sound? Explain Homework Equations...
43. ### How Do You Calculate Buckling Load and Failure Mode in Columns?

Homework Statement i am completely lost with this question. i need to work out: a. what minimum length the column will buckle. b. what load the failure would occur. c. if column was half length what would be mode of failure and the load it would fail at. i would appreciate any help as i am...
44. ### Calculate Axial Load on Column from Beam Transfer

Homework Statement How to obtain the axial force from beam transfer to column ? Say that I'm going to design the column at B . how to obtain the axial load ? Homework EquationsThe Attempt at a Solution I think it should be 96.6+148.6=245.2 ? I have read another source , it's stated that the...
45. ### Pressure of 11,000m Water Column: Crushing or Equal to Bottom of Ocean?

Suppose a cylinder was made. It is the same height as the deepest part of the ocean to the ocean surface - about 11,000 metres and about 1 metre wide. The cylinder was filled with water right to the top and stood on the Earth's surface. A small hole at the bottom of the cyclinder was opened...
46. ### Pumping water upwards in a column

Homework Statement Suppose you have a tank 10 m high. The tank is currently filled 5 m high with 1000 kg of water. How much energy does it take to pump in another 1000 kg of water from the bottom to fill the column to 10 m? (Ignore friction, etc.) Homework Equations E = m*g*h The Attempt at...
47. ### Calculate the height of a water column and expressions for P

Homework Statement The apparatus shown may be used to determine the density of an unknown liquid X. The tube has a uniform cross section and the height of the water column is twice that of Liquid X. A and B are the same horizontal level. The pressure difference between points A and C is...
48. ### Satellite and length of liquid column in a barometer

Homework Statement Homework EquationsThe Attempt at a Solution Mercury will be in a state of weightlessness in the satellite . The air pressure pushes down on the mercury in the cup as a result of which it rises in the barometer tube . But since it is apparently weightless , it tries to...
49. ### Hydrostatics, Length of a mercury column

Homework Statement What will be the length of mercury column in a barometer tube, when the atmospheric pressure is 75 cm of mercury and the tube is inclined at an angle of 60° with the horizontal direction? Homework Equations Pascal's Law The Attempt at a Solution l ⋅ sinϑ = h l = h / sinϑ l...
50. ### Hydrostatics, find length of kerosene column in U tube

Homework Statement A glass tube is bent into a U shape. Water is poured into the tube until it sands 12 cm high on each side. Kerosene (density = 870 kg/m3) is added slowly to one side until water on the other side raises 5 cm. What is the length of kerosene column? Homework Equations (ρhg)1 =...