What is Confinement: Definition and 73 Discussions

Solitary confinement is a form of imprisonment distinguished by living in single cells with little or no meaningful contact with other inmates, strict measures to control contraband, and the use of additional security measures and equipment. It is specifically designed for disruptive inmates who are security risks to other inmates, the prison staff, or the prison itself — but can also be used as a measure of protection for inmates whose safety is threatened by other inmates or as a form of disciplinary punishment.According to a 2017 review study, "a robust scientific literature has established the negative psychological effects of solitary confinement", leading to "an emerging consensus among correctional as well as professional, mental health, legal, and human rights organizations to drastically limit the use of solitary confinement." The United Nations considers solitary confinement exceeding 15 days to be torture.

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  1. A

    Inertial confinement fusion (First light, NIF, etc)

    More or less all ICF schemes seem to be similar to the first artificial fusion method (also inertial) of the secondary of the hydrogen bomb. Before I present the question let me show just another ICF approach recently done. The company is called "first light fusion", Their method is essentially...
  2. Shreya

    Understanding the Plasma Confinement in Tokamak Reactor

    Please be kind to help. How is an electric field formed due to toroidal magnetic field? How does the introduction of a poloidal magnetic field confine the plasma? Please answer in the context of Nuclear Fusion Reactor (tokamak).
  3. A

    Can Flame Jets Effectively Constrain Plasma in Fusion Reactors?

    I have a idea for a plasma based fusion reactor. Using a combusting hydrogen/other reactant generate a flame jet to actively confine the plasma and possibly using a helium compressed jet stream as well to bring down turbulence. My friend already says these will destroy the plasma but I am am...
  4. B

    Is this an idea or a device? (fusion plasma confinement configuration)

    The idea itself is to create in a toroidal chamber a spiral-shaped plasma filament with a singularity in the form of a ring of rotating plasma, in which the concentration of ions and the duration of nuclear interaction increase during electrostatic compression. For this, it is proposed to wind a...
  5. F

    I Black Hole Energy Confinement - Exploring the Possibilities

    After binge watching Steins;Gate, it has had me thinking about black holes. In the show it mentioned the idea of microscopic black holes(CERN). That being said, if matter and energy have an "equivalence", and if the Schwarzschild radius depends on mass, then would it be possible to confine a...
  6. D

    Is cusp confinement the key to achieving sustainable fusion reactions?

    i have researched fusion reactors. i can't find a straight answer. what is cusp confinement.
  7. mjda

    I The Confinement Radius of a Cosmic Ray (Galactic vs. Extra-galactic)

    If we want to show whether or not a specific Cosmic Ray particle is confined to our galaxy we must use the Larmor radius (relativistic version), r = γmc / qB Considering a 10^14 eV proton and assuming the galactic magnetic field strength is 10^−11 T, show that the particle is confined to the...
  8. M

    B Color Confinement in Dense Regions?

    Is the phenomenon of color confinement thought to persist in spatial regions of extreme density, such as the cores and regions surrounding massive stars during supernova, the accretion disks around active galactic nuclei, neutron stars, magnetars, and dense regions of space shortly after the big...
  9. A

    Neutron confinement ideas

    I am certainly not qualified to really comment on this subject, but I have been playing around with some ideas on how to confine neutrons to the interior of a nuclear reactor. I was wondering if there was a way to capture a emitted neutron from a reaction with a selected isotope that would be...
  10. Javier Lopez

    Magnetic field for thin plasma column confinement

    I have a thin copper tube of 4.4mm inner diameter (inside a long ionizer plasma cannon) and I want to fill in with hydrogen plasma fully ionized at low temperature (100eV), what is recommended magnetic field to have the ions there without touching tha walls? The plasma life is about 0.5 seconds
  11. S

    A Quantum Confinement Effect and Density of States

    I've been reading a bit about the quantum confinement effect on nanowires, particularly how it changes the band structure. I'm trying to find an explanation on why the density of states splits into sub-bands. At the moment all I'm running into is 'because of the quantum confinement effect' which...
  12. B

    B Quark confinement and the Higgs mechanism

    There is something that perflexed me. First here are the references to my questions: http://www.latticeguy.net/mypubs/pub017.pdf http://bose.res.in/~bossar/chandu.pdf What I'd like to know is the following: Without superstrings. Quark confinement and asymptotic freedom says as you pull the...
  13. R

    Who is Dr. Robert, a Multifaceted Scientist and Educator?

    I am a Rutgers and NJIT-educated professor of Physics, now under contract to Farmingdale State College and Nassau Community College, with other recent assignments at LIU Post and the BOCES Regional STEM High School. I embarked on doctoral-level studies in 2010 at Stony Brook University in their...
  14. rebc

    Tokamaks and plasma confinement

    I have the fundamental understanding of how tokamaks work. Now, why is it not ideal to confine plasmas using a z- or theta- pinch configurations?
  15. chandrahas

    What prevents high Beta plasma confinement and how to overcome the problems....

    In order to confine a plasma, the plasma pressure is supposed to be lower than the magnetic pressure. The ratio of the plasma pressure to the magnetic pressure is called beta . Theoretically, the value of beta is supposed to stay below one to confine a plasma, but can get close to it. But in...
  16. E

    Recommend topic about magnetic confinement in fusion

    Am going to write a scientific report about nuclear fusion related to magnetic confinement in ITER. Please recommend me aspects worth writing and having many materials. Thanks in advance.
  17. E

    I Uncertainty of electron energy based on confinement radius?

    I am trying to calculate what we'd expect the uncertainty in energy would be for an electron in a hydrogen atom where it was confined to its usual radius (120 pm) versus if we confined it to the width of a proton (.88 fm) to try and make an argument about why the electron does not fall into the...
  18. J

    A Gluon spin and quark confinement

    Gluons are spin 1 particles so the Strong Force can both attract and repulse. The constituent partons of a meson are a quark and an antiquark so they must carry a given color and its anticolor, respectively, in order that there is no net color carried by the parton. In that case, the force...
  19. Cyril St-Amand

    Dismantlement of Nuclear Power Plant (Canada)

    Hi everyone this is my first time posting here, First of all, excuse my english because here in Mtl we speak French mostly. My team and I are working on an university project in Montreal (Qc) Canada (Polytechnique) regarding the recycling of radioactive material waste. We are working on the...
  20. Andrea M.

    Yang-Mills theory, confinement and chiral symmetry breaking

    I was thinking about hadrons in general Yang-Mills theory and I have some doubts that I'd like to discuss with you. Suppose that we have a Yang-Mills theory that, like QCD, tend to bind quarks into color singlet states. So far nothing strange, even QED tend to bind electromagnetic charges to...
  21. P

    How quantum confinement can be obtained?

    Hi, I have been reading about quantum confined systems. That is, systems of 1 or 2 particles or atoms inside a region of space of radius R where potential energy is, say V(r), for r < R and infinity of r >= R. However, something I cannot find using Google is how one can obtain such space. I...
  22. pangru

    Dielectric confinement effect

    What is Dielectric confinement effect?. or could you advise me literature about this? Thank you.
  23. santhoshetty

    Can I get into a good Nuclear Fusion graduate program?

    I finished my bachelors in electronics and communication in 2014 from India. Since then I have worked as an Application Engineer in the VLSI domain at a reputed company. I would like to transition to Nuclear Fusion Physics. I am planning to give my Physics GRE in October 2015. Some background...
  24. I

    Quark confinement potentials -- Feedback requested

    Hello, everyone... I'm starting a new thread (among numerous others) regarding quark confinement and propose a discussion (in case anyone finds it interesting) on some of my considerations. As we all know, the idea of confinement consists in forbidding free propagation of free color-chagres...
  25. T

    Total internal confinement of magnetic field

    Hi, I heard it was possible if you symmetrically wind a toroid that you can get near total internal confinement of the magnetic field in the axial plane inside the toroid. How is this possible? I imagine a section of a closed loop of wire on the face of the toroid core, yet I still imagine those...
  26. E

    Prolonged solitary confinement causes schizophrenia?

    I read an interesting bit in the magazine psychology today about how prison inmates who are kept in solitary confinement for very long periods of time (months/years on end) can develop severe mental illnesses like schizophrenia, delusions, as well as visual and auditory hallucinations. This can...
  27. TESL@

    Can a Small Fusion Cell be Created? | Exploring Confinement Time

    Can a small fusion cell be created? If no, is it due to low confinement time it would have or something else? Thank you.
  28. TESL@

    Magnetic confinement questions

    Hello all, 1) In tokamak, since torodial magnetic field is present everywhere, how come plasma is confined without touching the walls? Is the magnetic field stronger inside (I suppose it should be radially uniform) or is it the doing of position control coils/cusps? 2) If there are two arc...
  29. H

    QCD Confinement: Energy of Quark & Momentum Transfer

    Hello to all When we study the Confinement of QCD, the coupling strength increases as the momentum transfer decreases (i.e, p→0) and the coupling strength decreases as the momentum transfer increases (i.e, p→∞). My question is: can we say ω =m; where ω is the energy which is given as...
  30. clope023

    Can one move from Inertial to Magnetic Confinement?

    Hello all, my question is related to graduate school topics and future postdoc possiblities. I'm a double major in electrical engineering and physics and have been doing plasma physics research as an undergraduate for roughly the last two years, with the last summer I played a part in...
  31. Q

    How can the quasi-gasdyanmic plasma confinement regime suppress MHD instability?

    Recently i have read a paper about another the way of plasma confinement. It is name that a quasi-gasdyanmic plasma confinement regime. How to surpress the MHD instability? Maybe i don't present a clear physics imagine. Wishing somebody can connect me? My major is Ion Source in Accelerator...
  32. A

    Magnetic confinement of plasma ball

    I was taught (In my old thread which was then closed by a mentor) that it is impossible to magnetically confine a plasma ball. But I've since then had an idea how it could be possible: Instead of using a steady magnetic field, use a rapidly rotating magnetic field. The field lines are always...
  33. Crazymechanic

    Alpha particle confinement question

    A theoretical question , imagine we have a theoretical spherical confinement (don't tell me it;s not possible as I know that already :) ) Now we would set that spherical confinement to a high positive potential , inside it we would have a ionized gas , now the electrons would tend to distribute...
  34. N

    Why don't Tokamaks blow up whenever they lose confinement?

    I haven't been able to find an answer to this anywhere. Suppose there's a quench in a coil at a tokamak and confinement is lost. I understand that there is no longer anything keeping the fusion going, but it seems to me that the plasma should still have enough inertia that, however momentarily...
  35. K

    Quark Confinement and the discovery of quarks

    Okay, so I've just begun to have a grasp on the concepts of quantum chromodynamics. And what amazes me is that quarks never actually exist on their own as a single particle because of the strong interaction between them. I've read that when you try to pull apart a pair of quarks that is bonded...
  36. bcrowell

    Too much mass from confinement

    This month's Scientific American has an article about preons, which are hypothetical particles that the standard-model particles would be built out of. They discuss a problem with confinement in these models. We know that, say, an electron has a size less than x. This requires an uncertainty in...
  37. D

    B Field Confinement for Toroidal Coils Driven by AC Current

    It is said that toroidal inductors/coils (see http://fa.tu-sofia.bg/te/Brandisky/images/toroidal_coil.jpg ) that are perfectly axially symmetric will completely confine B fields. That is, the B field inside will be nonzero and will circle the toroid, but the B field outside the toroid will be...
  38. Drakkith

    Confinement in a Quark-Gluon Plasma

    What exactly goes on in a QGP in regards to the particles and confinement? If quarks and gluons are normally confined, does this confinement suddenly not matter anymore? Does the plasma act like one big confined particle in a way? (Like one big nucleon or nucleus)
  39. B

    Magnetic confinement and Alfven's theorem

    Hi, I was reading about Earnshaw's theorem and how it explains the non availability of electrostatic confinement of plasma, but does Alfven's theorem really prove the fact that magnetic confinement of hot plasma is achievable? Regards, Boltzmann
  40. M

    Energy Conservation in Quark Confinement

    Hi guys, I was reading about quark confinement and came up with a doubt i can't find the answer to: You have to use energy to try to 'pull away' one of the quarks in a meson, right? And when you give enough energy, a new quark/anti-quark pair is created and that's why you never find only one...
  41. K

    Small Volume Plasma Confinement Device For Energy Storage

    Greetings: I am currently in the research phase of a project. I would like to get some feedback, opinions, and supporting data/information concerning the feasibility of a small volume (less than 1 cubic meter) plasma container device that would ideally be used to store energy up to 100...
  42. T

    Color confinement of Technicolor (QCD)

    I don't understand why technicolor interactions are unobservable at low energies due to the fact that they are strong and confining. I thought color confinement means that quarks cannot be separated but rather new quark-antiquark pairs form and result in Hadron jets. Isn't this a feature of...
  43. J

    Gases and thermodynamics in confinement.

    Hi. Consider a plenum with a small restricting outlet. Highly heated gas constantly flows through the plenum, and a build-up, or congestion of high-pressure gas exists in the plenum due to the restricting outlet pipe. The intake flow of gas does not change. 1. A hotter plenum should...
  44. N

    Should the quark propagator vanish because of confinement?

    Hi everyone! Something has been bothering me lately. Consider the quark propagator: \langle 0|\psi_a(x)\psi_a(0) |0\rangle For a given color a. Now let's say we insert 1 = \sum |n \rangle \langle n| between the two quark fields, where the sum is over a complete set of energy...
  45. N

    Why is confinement such an issue for fusion and not fission?

    Hello, Why is confinement a big problem in fusion and not in fission? Is it simply due to the fact that in fission, we're injecting a neutron that is neutral, and in fusion we're pushing together charged particles? If so, why is that facet not taken care of by reaching the critical ignition...
  46. N

    Is there color confinement in quarkgluonplasma?

    Hello, My knowledge on particle physics is very limited (halfway through my physics bachelor) but if I have to write a popular-scientific article on quarkgluonplasma (QGP) for a certain course. And I have a fair general understanding, but I was wondering if there was still color confinement...
  47. M

    Electrostatic plasma confinement

    Hello, Working on a little project, just some electrostatic plasma confinement, and the high energy plasma is being expelled out a nozzle, and a colleague of mine proposed that we use an electron beam through the center of the nozzle, the nozzle already having a bit running down the center that...
  48. R

    Possible simple reason for nuclear confinement and asymptotic freedom

    Dear all It is known that the ratio of the magnetic attraction to the static repulsion of two moving (similar) charges is in the ratio of (v/c)^2. A learned friend of mine tells me that this is relativistically correct also. When v is nearly c, the two forces are equal and we have an...
  49. M

    Jellium Model: Finite Confinement & Coulomb Interactions

    Is the Jellium model only suitable for an electron gas of infinite volume? If I confined a gas to a finite volume using an infinite potential well, is there still a way to cancel out the infinities in the coulomb interactions between electrons?