What is Material selection: Definition and 34 Discussions

Material selection is a step in the process of designing any physical object. In the context of product design, the main goal of material selection is to minimize cost while meeting product performance goals. Systematic selection of the best material for a given application begins with properties and costs of candidate materials. Material selection is often benefited by the use of material index or performance index relevant to the desired material properties. For example, a thermal blanket must have poor thermal conductivity in order to minimize heat transfer for a given temperature difference. It is essential that a designer should have a thorough knowledge of the properties of the materials and their behavior under working conditions. Some of the important characteristics of materials are : strength, durability, flexibility, weight, resistance to heat and corrosion, ability to cast, welded or hardened, machinability, electrical conductivity, etc.Systematic selection for applications requiring multiple criteria is more complex. For example, when the material should be both stiff and light, for a rod a combination of high Young's modulus and low density indicates the best material, whereas for a plate the cube root of stiffness divided by density





E

3




/

ρ


{\displaystyle {\sqrt[{3}]{E}}/\rho }
is the best indicator, since a plate's bending stiffness scales by its thickness cubed. Similarly, again considering both stiffness and lightness, for a rod that will be pulled in tension the specific modulus, or modulus divided by density



E

/

ρ


{\displaystyle E/\rho }
should be considered, whereas for a beam that will be subject to bending, the material index





E

2




/

ρ


{\displaystyle {\sqrt[{2}]{E}}/\rho }
is the best indicator.
Reality often presents limitations, and the utilitarian factor must be taken in consideration. The cost of the ideal material, depending on shape, size and composition, may be prohibitive, and the demand, the commonality of frequently utilized and known items, its characteristics and even the region of the market dictate its availability.

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  1. M

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  2. C

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  4. PCal

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  7. Thom_Silva

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  13. H

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  14. A

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  16. H

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  17. A

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  18. H

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  19. C

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  20. B

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  23. R

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  25. D

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  26. S

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  32. A

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