What is Material science: Definition and 117 Discussions

The interdisciplinary field of materials science, also commonly termed materials science and engineering, covers the design and discovery of new materials, particularly solids. The intellectual origins of materials science stem from the Enlightenment, when researchers began to use analytical thinking from chemistry, physics, and engineering to understand ancient, phenomenological observations in metallurgy and mineralogy. Materials science still incorporates elements of physics, chemistry, and engineering. As such, the field was long considered by academic institutions as a sub-field of these related fields. Beginning in the 1940s, materials science began to be more widely recognized as a specific and distinct field of science and engineering, and major technical universities around the world created dedicated schools for its study.
Materials scientists emphasize understanding, how the history of a material (processing) influences its structure, and thus the material's properties and performance. The understanding of processing-structure-properties relationships is called the materials paradigm. This paradigm is used to advance understanding in a variety of research areas, including nanotechnology, biomaterials, and metallurgy.
Materials science is also an important part of forensic engineering and failure analysis – investigating materials, products, structures or components, which fail or do not function as intended, causing personal injury or damage to property. Such investigations are key to understanding, for example, the causes of various aviation accidents and incidents.

View More On Wikipedia.org
  1. Olha

    A From Nyquist plot to real conductivity spectra (sigma)

    Hi, I have data of impedance but due to limitation of software after measurement I do not receive numerical values for admittance and real conductivity vs frequency. How mathematically I can convert Nyquist plot into plot real conductivity vs frequency?
  2. hudsonj

    Intro Physics Pop-sci books about condensed matter physics or superconductivity?

    I was wondering if anyone knows of any technical pop-sci books about condensed matter physics and/or superconductivity that are at the technical level of something like the "A Very Short Introduction" series or the Feynman lectures. That is, something that goes sufficiently into depth into the...
  3. abdulbadii

    Low Heat/Thermal Conductivity Electric Conductive Materials

    What is/are the electric conductive material(s) which has/have the least heat/thermal conductive?
  4. Pipsqueakalchemist

    Engineering (material science) Fatigue life prediction using integral

    So for this question, I understand the math but just wanted to be clear on a few things. So I had this question on my midterm but instead of tensile and compressive stresses, it was tensile and tensile stress. I initially thought that the delta sigma in the integral was the maximum stress so in...
  5. gggnano

    I Is it possible to have "ideal surface" whose highest peak is ~1 nm?

    I mean you could buy a mirror or silicon wafer but they give say 0.5 nm or 5nm 'roughness' which I suspect is the mean average roughness but this doesn't rule out a high "bump" way above the mean average such that for example 1 million bumps of 1 nm and just one of 5 will result in...
  6. E

    I How does diffusion of high energy electrons shift band structure?

    When an n-type material comes in contact with a p-type material to form pn-junction, electrons with the highest energy in the conduction band will diffuse to the p-side to reach equilibrium so the entire band structure on n-side will shift down relative to p-side as described in the following...
  7. hjkdmdmf

    High Temp γ-Fe Enthalpy > Low Temp α-Fe Enthalpy: Why?

    Why is the enthalpy of γ-Fe at high temperatures higher than the enthalpy of α-Fe at low temperatures?
  8. Alpha Roy

    A Mapping High Symmetry Points from Primitive to Conventional Cell

    We usually plot electronic bands with the help of high symmetry points of the irreducible zone of primitive cell of particular material. But if we want to plot bands with conventional cell, we have to map the high symmetry points from primitive cell to conventional cell. so how can we map the...
  9. Anmol Dubey

    Determining the Yield strength and Ultimate tensile strength of HDPE

    Help would very appreciated. Also I am new to this website so if something seems wrong please tell me :)
  10. A

    Studying Thin-Films: Do I Need Material Science Background?

    Do I need to have a solid background in Material Science if I would like to study thin-films?
  11. Sai Maurice

    Populating a 1001x101 2D array in MATLAB

    The method I employed was based on a nested loop. I ran into two issues with this approach 1. The code took way too long to run, easily going for over 7 minutes. 2. In the end, it didn't even completely work, due to the "index exceeding the array length". This confuses me For the relevant...
  12. M

    What kind of plastic is best for this loudspeaker enclosure?

    I want to build a spherical speaker with a diameter of about 50 cm. The frequency response should be relatively deep. Now my question is, which type of plastic is best for it and how thick does the housing have to be?
  13. supern0va

    Engineering Material Science Books for Mechanical Engineering

    Hello, I'm looking for a book that explains the subject of material science so that I can apply that knowledge to mechanical engineering. I was wondering if Materials Science and Engineering: An Introduction by Callister might be a good choice. Could that book help me in mechanical engineering...
  14. M

    What are some possible future applications for supersolids?

    Scientists finally created a 2D Supersolid! There existence has been predicted since the 60’s and now we have them. The scientists who created it don’t really know what it could be used for as it’s so much in the infancy stages, it’s practically a zygote. As an aspiring futurist, I was wondering...
  15. Dario56

    Why is Material Toughness the Ability to Absorb Energy Before Fracture?

    Toughness is defined as ability of material to absorb energy when deforming before fracture. Materials with high ductility and strength will have high toughness. What is meant by ability of material to absorb energy? What is connection between strength, ductility and ability to absorb energy so...
  16. C

    I Preventing parasitics for wires?

    This is related to a question that I asked here: https://physics.stackexchange.com/questions/650709/one-way-magnetic-shielding. Please take a look at the check-marked answer. There is a material that can act as a one-way magnetic/electric shield. My question is if this material were to be used...
  17. Sophrosyne

    Medical Tensile strength of cell membranes

    The structure of the cell membrane is depicted as being formed from a bilayer of phospholipids with their hydrophilic portions pointing outwards and their hydrophilic portions facing each other. But as I look at the histology of the epithelial layer of the epidermis or mucous membranes, I am...
  18. R

    Engineering Future Plans for an Aspiring Engineer

    Hi all, I am currently a rising Junior in college on track for a BS in MSE and loving it so far. This summer I am doing a remote internship for a National Lab and ever since day one, I have loved it. I also have been doing undergrad research for the past year and find it incredibly interesting...
  19. Arceus74

    Job Skills Getting a Job in Simulation/Modelling with a MSc in Material Science

    Hey guys, I am looking for any insights for getting a job in the simulation or modelling industry with a Masters in Material Science and Engineering. I have worked with composites during my masters and found out I don't have much interest in doing lab testing. I don't have any plans of doing a...
  20. HansBu

    What are the mysteries of physics and the deeper structures of materials?

    I am only new to Physics Forum but I am looking forward to a fruitful information sharing about the mysteries in the world of Physics. Furthermore, I am interested in knowing deeper structures of materials.
  21. hagopbul

    Find Material Science Research: Hagop Bulbulian's Guide

    the paper is on material science and i can't find it any where not on google not any where , could you guide me to a website that i can use to search for it? Гуляшинов А.Н., Хантургаева Г.И., Калинин Ю.О. Сульфидизация церуссита полисульфидами натрия при измельчении окисленной свинцово-цинковой...
  22. RRouse

    Electric Singing Saw - Spring Steel Alloy (Material Science)

    This is a fun one, sort of! I am working on a singing saw that can be amplified with a regular magnetic pick up, from an electric guitar. I made a blade from laser cut1095 blue tempered spring steel (0.042" thick). It sounded great, but after a few months of service, the blade cracked. What is a...
  23. Error404!

    A Effective Mass of Electron for White Tin

    For some work of mine i need the plasma resonance frequency for tin nanoparticle, i searched various research papers and found different efffective masses tin for different orbits. here i attached screen shot from W A Roger and S B Woods (Cyclotron effective masses in white tin). What value is...
  24. E

    Why is the band gap in alloys such as GaAs less?

    In pure crystals,such as,in silicon and germanium,the band gap is more than that in compound semiconductors,such as,GaAs.Why is that so.
  25. P

    Physics Going back for a masters, or is work experience just as good

    I am just looking for some opinions. I have been considering going to get my masters in Material Science (I have a B.S. in physics). I currently have a great job in the field, and it teaches me a ton. When getting my masters, I would keep the job, and they would even pay for a lot of it. I can't...
  26. M

    Material Science & Advanced Thin Film Technologies: Postgraduate Research

    Is it advisable to have a Material Science background if I would like to pursue a postgraduate research studies in advanced thin film technologies?
  27. M

    Programs Switch majors from ME to material science?

    Hey, I’m kinda of in a crisis in my head here. I’m in the US to pursue my masters in mechanical engineering. After the introductory material science course, I believe I’ve got a greater interest towards materials than mechanical engineering. Would transferring to Material Science be a good...
  28. M

    Where do Solid-State Physics and Material Science overlap?

    Where are the solid-state Physics and Material Sciences overlapping? which topics?
  29. M

    Is the posted program a "Physics of Material Science" program?

    Is the posted program a program of Physics of Material Science ? Can anyone help>> https://www.uni-leipzig.de/fileadmin/user_upload/Physics_IPSP_BSc_27.04.17.pdf > https://www.uni-leipzig.de/fileadmin/user_upload/Physics_IPSP_MSc_28.04.17.pdf
  30. S

    Engineering Mech Eng vs Physics (Material Science)

    Hi guys, Quick background: I'm 26, in Australia, and have a degree in an unrelated field (economics). I'd like to go back to uni next year to study engineering or physics and I'm currently doing an enabling course since I didn't do any of the higher math/physics/chem subjects in high school...
  31. P

    Why won't my silicon melt with a zvs inductive heater?

    I’m using a zvs inductive heater to try to melt some 99.85% polycrystalline silicon, as would occur in the Czochralski process, but the silicon workpiece is not melting let alone even getting hot. The silicon workpiece is about the size of a playing dice, and becomes fully conductive after...
  32. D

    Programs Change of Major from Mechanical Engineering to Material Science

    Hello guys, I received an admit to grad school for Mechanical Engineering, where my focus was initially Thermo-Fluids . I've also enquired about the Material Science department at the University(in the USA), and they are willing to let me transfer to the Material Science department provided I...
  33. Dor

    I What should be continuous at the interface of two materials?

    At the interface between: 1) conductor/conductor 2) conductor/semiconductor (or dielectric) 3) semiconductor/semiconductor (or dielectric/dielectric) What quantity should be continuous? Is it the electrochemical potential, only the chemical potential or is it the electric potential? Since they...
  34. H

    Courses PhD in theoretical physics vs material science?

    Hello PF, I am currently pursuing my Masters in Physics with specialisation in material science. But I am interested in quantum mechanics and want to do PhD and then research in quantum mechanics. But in today's date is it good to go for theoretical physics rather than going for some...
  35. C

    Does charging metal negatively decrease the work function?

    Since positive charge on the photocatode increases work function of electrons, does charging metal photocatode negatively decrease work function? If not, why?
  36. E

    Molecular Dynamics Simulation - How Do You Find Parameters?

    Hi all, I'm doing a bit of material science research at my university. I'm running molecular dynamics simulation programs like Lammps and Amber as part of it, and I'm pretty new to the whole thing (just like I'm pretty new to this forum). I'd like to ask, has anyone here used Amber to find their...
  37. C

    Tensile Strength of reduced graphene oxide?

    Does anyone know the tensile strength and other mechanical properties of reduced graphene oxide? I know that it has some similarities to both graphene and graphene oxide, but I can't find any data on its tensile strength.
  38. H

    Light in a medium: do phonons store light energy?

    When light travels through a transparent medium and is absorbed then re-emitted, do the phonons just move to a higher energy state after absorption? Is it the same as absorption and re-emission of light by electrons, aside from having a continuous range of available energies?
  39. D

    Material Thickness and Bolt Shear Strength

    I am wondering why the material thickness is not factored into calculating bolt shear strength in a joint. I know that it is used when calculating the strength of the material itself and its susceptibility to deformation and tear out but why not the bolt? When you cut a piece of cheese you use...
  40. B

    How do solar cells generate current from pn-junctions?

    Looking for a practical description. I have a feeling I am grossly misunderstanding something fundamental about electric circuits and apologize if my questions are confusing because of it. I have these two sources: acs hyperphysics My (probably naive) understanding of the process is as...
  41. J

    How to calculate heat dispersion through a solid copper rod?

    I'm trying to build a fanless computer case for a small electronic device. I'm trying to figure out what type of heat-sink material I should use. I have a solid copper rod about 3cm in length with a radius of .05cm. I've determined and calculated the density, specific heat, thermal...
  42. J

    Finding Impact Depth: Most Realistic Way Possible

    I'm trying to find the impact or penetration depth of a projectile in the (reasonably) most realistic way possible. I assume this has many factors including velocity, the densities of both materials, shapes of both materials, the medium of which the projectile travels through, gravity, etc...
  43. J

    Light travels only in one direction material?

    I would like to know if their are any materials that would allow light to pass in only one direction, In electricity we have diode, which will allow electricity to pass in only one direction, in optics how do we reflect light from one side and allow light from the other side to pass through?
  44. ScrollPortals

    Barrier to entry for hardware material science experiments?

    I read phys.org and science daily, daily. I read about all these amazing experiments and discoveries and I want to try my own experiments. A lot of articles are about emerging computing technologies, and often the article emphasizes how inexpensive these materials and processes are becoming. I...
  45. E

    Material Science -- using materials without specifying crystal directions

    Why in most practical applications, most materials properties are given without specifying crystal directions. Are they trying to say all materials are isotropic?
  46. S

    I Physics of Heat Transfer in Glass Windows

    What is the physics behind heat transfer between two panes of glass? Commonly windows now are filled with argon (some cost) or krypton (pricey) At a given temperature all gas molecules have the same energy per mode, so heavy ideal gas molecules move more slowly than light ones, so heat...
  47. U

    Engineering Getting An Internship after getting B.S. in mathematics

    A few years ago, I graduated from Wheaton College with a B.S. in Mathematics; my objective is to be a mathematician in engineering that helps mechanical engineers with their mathematical/statistical modeling. Since I graduated, I have been looking for internships in Chicago: Unfortunately, I...
  48. I

    Is the use of materials to confine nuclear fusion ruled out?

    Usually people talk about magnetic confinement schemes or some such thing for fusion reactions presumably because the pressure and temperatures would vaporize/destroy all conceived material vessels too quickly. I would like to hear someone talk about the limits of materials in this realm. So...
  49. V

    Engineering Materials Science Introduction Book?

    Specifically, for a high schooler with only basic physics and chemistry knowledge who is interested in the field