What is Zinc: Definition and 65 Discussions

Zinc is a chemical element with the symbol Zn and atomic number 30. Zinc is a slightly brittle metal at room temperature and has a silvery-greyish appearance when oxidation is removed. It is the first element in group 12 (IIB) of the periodic table. In some respects, zinc is chemically similar to magnesium: both elements exhibit only one normal oxidation state (+2), and the Zn2+ and Mg2+ ions are of similar size. Zinc is the 24th most abundant element in Earth's crust and has five stable isotopes. The most common zinc ore is sphalerite (zinc blende), a zinc sulfide mineral. The largest workable lodes are in Australia, Asia, and the United States. Zinc is refined by froth flotation of the ore, roasting, and final extraction using electricity (electrowinning).
Brass, an alloy of copper and zinc in various proportions, was used as early as the third millennium BC in the Aegean area and the region which currently includes Iraq, the United Arab Emirates, Kalmykia, Turkmenistan and Georgia. In the second millennium BC it was used in the regions currently including West India, Uzbekistan, Iran, Syria, Iraq, and Israel. Zinc metal was not produced on a large scale until the 12th century in India, though it was known to the ancient Romans and Greeks. The mines of Rajasthan have given definite evidence of zinc production going back to the 6th century BC. To date, the oldest evidence of pure zinc comes from Zawar, in Rajasthan, as early as the 9th century AD when a distillation process was employed to make pure zinc. Alchemists burned zinc in air to form what they called "philosopher's wool" or "white snow".
The element was probably named by the alchemist Paracelsus after the German word Zinke (prong, tooth). German chemist Andreas Sigismund Marggraf is credited with discovering pure metallic zinc in 1746. Work by Luigi Galvani and Alessandro Volta uncovered the electrochemical properties of zinc by 1800. Corrosion-resistant zinc plating of iron (hot-dip galvanizing) is the major application for zinc. Other applications are in electrical batteries, small non-structural castings, and alloys such as brass. A variety of zinc compounds are commonly used, such as zinc carbonate and zinc gluconate (as dietary supplements), zinc chloride (in deodorants), zinc pyrithione (anti-dandruff shampoos), zinc sulfide (in luminescent paints), and dimethylzinc or diethylzinc in the organic laboratory.
Zinc is an essential mineral, including to prenatal and postnatal development. Zinc deficiency affects about two billion people in the developing world and is associated with many diseases. In children, deficiency causes growth retardation, delayed sexual maturation, infection susceptibility, and diarrhea. Enzymes with a zinc atom in the reactive center are widespread in biochemistry, such as alcohol dehydrogenase in humans. Consumption of excess zinc may cause ataxia, lethargy, and copper deficiency.

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  1. D

    Can a dry cell be made rechargeable?

    TL;DR Summary: Dry cells are usually not rechargeable but I had a few ideas. Basically dry cells are not rechargeable as zinc reacts with ammonia to form complex compounds which can't be revived. Consequently the quantity of reactants reduce thus hindering it from recharging. So in a dry cell...
  2. Positronix

    Radioluminescence and differing zinc sulfide preparations?

    It's all over the internet, the epidermis-deep explanation of radioluminescent zinc sulfide, "doped" or "activated" with copper (green) and/or silver (blue), being the phosphor that people mixed with radium salts (perhaps radium-doped barium or something with a bit more bulk for managability and...
  3. H

    Zinc Chloride: The Lewis Acid with Electrophilic Properties

    Zinc chloride is Electrophilic and so acts as a Lewis acid.This characteristic is due to it's ability to accept electrons to it's 4 d orbital.My question is why it receives electrons to it's 4 d orbital when 4 p remain empty( according to Aufbau diagram)?Are there any other d block element...
  4. K

    Is Zinc alloy or Aluminium alloy better?

    Which alloy is better resistant to corrosion and less easy to get scratched and the paint fall? For kitchen cupboard handle. Thanks a lot.
  5. T

    Which metal is safest for hair/scalp? Bismuth, silver or zinc oxide?

    A little background on my experiment … "Henna" (Lawsonia plant hair dye going way back to ancient times) used to be combined with metallic salts to cause it to adhere to the hair and make it thicker with cumulative use. In foreign countries "compound henna" is still being sold but often w/...
  6. A

    Help with Copper and Zinc's Effects on a Plant Experiment

    Hi, I'm in 12th grade and for my senior project I wanted to do an experiment on the effects that copper and zinc have on mung beans. I have copper sulfate pentahyde and zinc sulfate monohydrate, which I had purchased because I have seen information on other similar experiments where these were...
  7. S

    What is the most cost-effective method for making food grade zinc carbonate?

    I'm looking for the least expensive method for making food grade zinc carbonate (for a molecular gastronomy recipe I'm developing). I know it can be done with the soluble forms of zinc (sulfate, chloride and possibly acetate) by combining them with sodium carbonate (which I have), but the...
  8. G

    UV-Vis of zinc oxide nanoparticles

    I prepared zinc oxide nanoparticles by reacting zinc sulfate with sodium hydroxide and urea. Then, I centrifuged the reaction mixture to obtain the white powder and washed it with deionized water several times. I then mixed the powder with deionized water for UV-Vis. My results are a bit weird...
  9. G

    Zinc+Iron+Acetone+Hydrogen Peroxide

    When I added a zinc plated iron ball into the acetone-peroxide solution, they zinc started bubbling. The solution turned whitish. Then after leaving overnight it became grayish with orange red foam on top
  10. F

    Lemon battery without copper and zinc metals

    Hello, I have seen a video online that shows how a LED can be lit using a single lemon without using a copper and a zinc nail. They simply stick the LED into the lemon. What does that work? I know the lemon contains the electrolyte but don't we always need to dissimilar metals for the battery...
  11. W

    Determine percentage of iron(II) and iron(III) in a solution

    Hi I am stuck on the following question. Outline a plan of an experiment to determine the percentage of iron present as iron(III) in a solution containing Fe3+(aq) and Fe2+(aq) ions. You are provided with zinc, a standard solution of potassium dichromate(VI) and dilute sulphuric acid. Zinc can...
  12. P

    Adding Nickel to Zinc Sulphate Solution

    hi chemists, my chemistry is a bit rusty. i am doing some basic DIY zinc plating using a acid solution with some zinc sulfate in solution. basic recipe is like this: net 2L Epsom Salt 128 gram Zinc Sulfate 43 gram <-- use the ~99% pure stuff White Vinegar 85 ml Sugar 27 gram Tap Water 1915 ml...
  13. R

    Effective annealing parameters in N-doped Zinc oxide

    Good day every one! Based on my research as you increased the temperature, the grain size become bigger and the thickness decreased, but in some paper, thickness increased. The effects of annealing temperature is almost the same to the temperature. But if you will considering doping for...
  14. S

    Solubility in g/L of zinc hydroxide with pH of 8

    Homework Statement Zinc hydroxide has the chemical formula of Zn(OH)2. It has a very low solubility. What is the solubility in g/L of Zinc Hydroxide in a solution with a pH of 8? Homework Equations zinc hydroxide formula 14-pH = pOH[/B]The Attempt at a Solution 10^-6 (the pOH) gives me the...
  15. Khoa

    Measure thickness of coating film on Zinc Plating Steel

    Hi All, I'm searching for the possible method to determine organic coating thickness cover on steel tole was plated by thin zinc layer. Additionally, I also want to measure thickness zinc plating layer in between these layers (coating on top & steel on bottom) without destructing them. Please...
  16. A

    Zinc metal is added to hydrochloric acid to generate.......

    Homework Statement Zinc metal is added to hydrochloric acid to generate hydrogen gas and is collected over a liquid whose vapor pressure is the same as that of pure water at 20.0°C (18 torr). The volume of the mixture is 1.7 L, and its total pressure is 0.987 atm. Determine the number of moles...
  17. ryanuser

    Formation of Zinc Oxide: Can Metal Strip be Oxidized?

    Hi I am aware that Zinc Oxide (ZnO) is in the form of white powder. Can I leave a strip of Zinc in a room (at presence of Oxygen) so that it becomes oxidised therefore the same thing is resulted but in form of a metal strip instead of powder? Would the resulted strip become as oxidised as the...
  18. R

    Silicon wafer as substrate in Zinc oxide thin films

    Good day, many articles used sillicon wafer as substrate over others (like:platinum, glass, sapphire and etc) to grow Zinc oxide thin films, but I'm don't know the real reason they choose silicon wafer as substrate compare to others. so I'm asking what are the advantages of using Silicon wafers...
  19. J

    Can a Conductive Graphite Coating Prevent Zinc Chloride Reaction with Steel?

    Hi , I am looking to coat the inside of a small nickel plated steel can (about the same size as an AA battery casing) with a conductive graphite layer that has enough density to prevent ZnCl2 (zinc chloride) reacting with the steel. The can is filled with some ZnCl2 and I am trying to prevent...
  20. S

    How dangerous are Zinc Oxide nano-particles to the skin?

    How dangerous are Zinc Oxide nano-particles to the skin? I'm sorry ahead of time if this is the wrong place to put this. I'm just curious if anyone here knows if nano-particles of zinc oxide sunscreen actually harms the skin? Would it speed up photoaging (considering that it is effective in...
  21. B

    Ionization of Zinc in galvanic cells

    what exactly ionizes zinc in the galvanic cell or the daniell cell ? i mean zinc atoms in the galvanic cell are ionized into Zn ++ and 2 e- . then the electrons move through the conductor to the copper bar , my question is why does zinc ionize when connected in a battery ? when the circuit...
  22. R

    Finding number of atoms per cm^3 of zinc?

    Homework Statement Zinc has a density of 7.17 Mg/m^3. Calculate (a) the number of Zn atoms per cm^3, (b) the mass of a single Zn atom and (c) the atomic volume of Zn. Homework Equations atomic mass of zinc = 65.39 g/mol The Attempt at a Solution For part (a) I use the fact that...
  23. B

    How to change Zinc Oxide surface area/particle size?

    Hello, I need some help with my research on zinc oxide. It is produced through melting of zinc and vapourization process. Now the question is how the surface area can be manipulated as per requirements or if possible can particle size also be manipulated ? thanks...
  24. W

    Qualitative analysis lab, zinc problem

    Homework Statement This is for a qualitative analysis lab. The unknown solution can contain any combination of the following ions: Na, Mg, Ni, Cr, Zn, Ag, Pb, NO3, Cl, I, SO4 Tools available: Bunsen burner for flame test, centrifuge, hot plate, and all the test tubes and DI water you...
  25. K

    Exploring the Gas Sensing Properties of Zinc Oxide Nanostructures

    I am just confuse about zinc oxide being a gas sensor. What I am implying is that why it can detect gases such as methane and C2H5OH? What are the properties of ZnO as a gas sensor?and what is the physics behind this gas detection?
  26. M

    Reduction of a ketone using zinc in acetic acid

    I'm going to be giving a 1st year student chemistry tutoring so I'm going over some of his past exam papers to make sure I know all the stuff but I'm already at a question I can't do: http://img571.imageshack.us/img571/5716/26705030.png So from the formula, I can see that the degree of...
  27. E

    Derivation of lattice parameter of zinc blende crystal structure

    I need to derive the lattice parameter in terms of the Zn-S separation distance, l. I looked up the value and I've found it to be a = \frac{4}{\sqrt{3}}l The way that I started my derivation was saying that each tetrahedron has a sulfide ion in the center, so then we can make a triangle from...
  28. S

    Why Zinc is a Metal: Explaining Low Melting Point

    as zinc is having completely field orbital sp2 ...why it is metal ? why it is having low melting point?
  29. K

    How to determine zinc in a plant.

    Which would you prefer? I'm calculating the amount of zinc absorbed by a particular plant (yes, in theory it does accumulate zinc- B.Juncea).
  30. A

    Zinc reacting with oxygen - IS THIS RELATION CORRECT?

    Homework Statement Powdered zinc is heated with sulfur to form zinc sulfide... however, part of the reactants react with O2 as well and form zinc oxide and sulfur dioxide... Imagine that 85.2 g of Zn reacted with 52.4 g of S8 and 105.4 g of ZnS was formed... If the remainder of the...
  31. B

    Calculating the partial pressure of pure Zinc over a solution? over

    Homework Statement The activity coefficient of zinc in liquid brass is given (in joules) by the following equation for temperatures 1000-1500 K: RT ln γZn = -38,300 x2Cu where xCu is the mole fraction of copper. Calculate the partial pressure of pure zinc PZn over a solution of 60 mol%...
  32. L

    Electroplating Zinc onto Copper: Calculating Time Needed

    Wow. Can anyone please tell me how to approach this problem? For a science experiment you need to electroplate zinc onto both sides of a very thin, 1.00 1.00 copper sheet. You want the zinc thickness to be 140 , and you know that the charge carriers in the ionic solution are divalent...
  33. A

    How Do You Calculate the Percentage of Zinc in a Sample Using EDTA Titration?

    Homework Statement I'm trying to determine the percentage of zinc in an unknown sample. What I did in this lab, was, I titrated the zinc solution (which contained about 4g unknown zinc sample) with Na2EDTA and it took about 20 mL to reach the end point. Before doing this, I standardized the...
  34. M

    Passivation vs Zinc Clear Coating of Stainless Steel

    Is Passivation to s/s = to Zinc Clear Coating of s/s? I know passivation is adding a layer of chorosion inhibtor the the surface so can this layer be clear zinc or are these different means of coating s/s?
  35. S

    Electrowinning Zinc: Understanding the Process and Sulfuric Acid

    Zinc reacts with sulfuric acid to produce zinc sulfate and hydrogen. But then, when electrowinning zinc, this is reversed, with zinc deposited on the cathode, oxygen evolved at the anode, and sulfuric acid also produced. So why does the sulfuric acid not immediately react with the zinc...
  36. larrybud

    Can Zicam's Zinc-Based Remedy Actually Shorten the Life of a Cold Virus?

    Surprised I only found a couple of messages about Zicam, the Zinc based "cold remedy". http://www.zicam.com/ The idea is that the zinc shortens the life of the cold virus. They don't make any claims like a "cure for the common cold".
  37. C

    Zinc Reacting with Hydrochloric Acid: STP Conditions

    Homework Statement Base metal zinc (Zn) reacts with concentrated hydrochloric acid (HCl) forming gaseous hydrogen and zinc chloride. STP conditions: pressure p = 101,3 kPa , temperature t = 0C. The equation of state for ideal gas: pV = nRT R = 8,314 J /(mol K) Homework Equations Write...
  38. R

    Restoring Zinc Alloy Parts: Removal of Plating, Soldering & Chemicals

    Zinc Alloy parts( Zn, with small % of Al, Cu,Pb, etc) become corroded with age. Refurbishing (Restoring) involves removal of all plating, drilling out corrosion pits and filling with zinc solder. Badly corroded parts have patches of oxided metal surrounding the pits. This substantially reduces...
  39. C

    Solubility of zinc hydroxide

    Zn(II) ions form a white ppt. zinc hydroxide with an aqueous solution of ammonia. The white ppt. dissolves when a ammonium chloride solution is added to it. Which statement explains this observation? A. a soluble zinc chloride compound is formed B. ammonia molecule is a stronger ligand than...
  40. P

    How much zinc sulfide is produced?

    Homework Statement 5.0 g of Zn is heated with an equal amount of S, bow much zinc sulfide is produced? Homework Equations The Attempt at a Solution Wouldn't there be an equation to solve this problem? I know law of constant composition is an observation that the elemental composition...
  41. T

    Reasons why % yield would be so low, synthesis of zinc iodide

    Homework Statement In my Chem lab we synthesized zinc iodide. To 1g granulated zinc, 2ml distilled water and 4 drops of 2 M acetic acid was added. Then 1g of iodide. The mixture was agitated and several minutes later the reaction completed. There was some excess zinc, so we set up a...
  42. W

    Activating Zinc Sulfide for Glowing

    Hello. I am trying to activate crystals of Zinc Sulfide in order to get the crystal to glow in the dark. I do not need a long-term or powerful glow, I am merely investigating whether it is possible. How can I prepare Zinc Sulfide crystals that have copper impurities as part of the crystal...
  43. mheslep

    Reducing ZnO to Zn: Thermal vs. Electrowinning

    The two commercial methods of reducing ZnO to Zn appear to be Thermal, in the presence of C: 2 ZnO + C → 2 Zn + CO2 and electrowinning: ZnO + H2SO4 → ZnSO4 + H2O (followed by electrolysis on the ZnSO4) But what is the effect of straight electrolysis on ZnO in the presence of some electrolyte to...
  44. R

    How long will it take the zinc to reach the desired thickness?

    Homework Statement For a science experiment you need to electroplate a 130 nm thick zinc coating onto both sides of a very thin, 3.0 cm*3.0 cm copper sheet. You know that the charge carriers in the ionic solution are divalent (charge 2e) zinc ions. The density of zinc is 7140 kg/m^3 If the...
  45. J

    How can Bright Zinc plated Steel Shelves go rusty in a Fridge?

    Hi, I have some Bright Zinc plated shelves which are currently being stored at 0-1'c. Over a period of 6 months they have become extremely rusty. How has this happened? Please help...
  46. M

    Calculating Copper & Zinc Mass in Yellow Zinc Brass

    Homework Statement Brass is an alloy of copper and zinc. Varying the mass percentages of the two metals produces brasses with different properties. A brass called yellow zinc has high ductility and strength and is 34%-37% zinc by mass. (a) Find the mass range (in g) of copper in 185 g of...
  47. B

    Zinc fingers and oxidative DNA damage

    Can zinc fingers be used to solve the oxidative DNA damage problem? theoretically? "By attaching zinc fingers which determine where transcription factors bind to endonuclease, which break DNA strands, homologous recombination can be induced to correct & replace defective/undesired DNA sequences"