Renormalization is a collection of techniques in quantum field theory, the statistical mechanics of fields, and the theory of self-similar geometric structures, that are used to treat infinities arising in calculated quantities by altering values of these quantities to compensate for effects of their self-interactions. But even if no infinities arose in loop diagrams in quantum field theory, it could be shown that it would be necessary to renormalize the mass and fields appearing in the original Lagrangian.For example, an electron theory may begin by postulating an electron with an initial mass and charge. In quantum field theory a cloud of virtual particles, such as photons, positrons, and others surrounds and interacts with the initial electron. Accounting for the interactions of the surrounding particles (e.g. collisions at different energies) shows that the electron-system behaves as if it had a different mass and charge than initially postulated. Renormalization, in this example, mathematically replaces the initially postulated mass and charge of an electron with the experimentally observed mass and charge. Mathematics and experiments prove that positrons and more massive particles like protons exhibit precisely the same observed charge as the electron – even in the presence of much stronger interactions and more intense clouds of virtual particles.
Renormalization specifies relationships between parameters in the theory when parameters describing large distance scales differ from parameters describing small distance scales. Physically, the pileup of contributions from an infinity of scales involved in a problem may then result in further infinities. When describing space-time as a continuum, certain statistical and quantum mechanical constructions are not well-defined. To define them, or make them unambiguous, a continuum limit must carefully remove "construction scaffolding" of lattices at various scales. Renormalization procedures are based on the requirement that certain physical quantities (such as the mass and charge of an electron) equal observed (experimental) values. That is, the experimental value of the physical quantity yields practical applications, but due to their empirical nature the observed measurement represents areas of quantum field theory that require deeper derivation from theoretical bases.
Renormalization was first developed in quantum electrodynamics (QED) to make sense of infinite integrals in perturbation theory. Initially viewed as a suspect provisional procedure even by some of its originators, renormalization eventually was embraced as an important and self-consistent actual mechanism of scale physics in several fields of physics and mathematics.
Today, the point of view has shifted: on the basis of the breakthrough renormalization group insights of Nikolay Bogolyubov and Kenneth Wilson, the focus is on variation of physical quantities across contiguous scales, while distant scales are related to each other through "effective" descriptions. All scales are linked in a broadly systematic way, and the actual physics pertinent to each is extracted with the suitable specific computational techniques appropriate for each. Wilson clarified which variables of a system are crucial and which are redundant.
Renormalization is distinct from regularization, another technique to control infinities by assuming the existence of new unknown physics at new scales.
What is the meaning of the expansion at first order in ##\delta_2## and ##\delta_3## at the second step in the last line? These quantities are not "small" - on the contrary, the entire point is to then take the ##\epsilon \to 0## limit and the counterterms blow up
I have taken a Quantum Field Theory course recently in which we first derived the Callan-Symanzik equation and then discussed Wilson's Renormalization. However, I don't think I have a clear understanding of the procedures and how they relate to each other. For the sake of this question, let's...
Hello, I have to solve this problem. I will apply the Niemeijer Van Leeuwen method once I have the probability distribution
proper to the renormalization group ,P(s,s'). For example, in the case of a triangular lattice, this distribution is:
where I is the block index.
However, it is very...
Hello!
I am currently reading Itzykson Zuber QFT book and on Chapter 7 where for the first time loops are considered. Particular method of dealing with divergences namely Pauli-Villars regularization is considered in section 7-1-1 considering vacuum polarization diagram. I do understand physics...
I tried to do a Euler Lagrange equation to our Lagrangian:
$$\frac{S_\text{eff}}{T}=\int d^6x\left[(\nabla \phi)^2+(\nabla \sigma)^2+\lambda\sigma (\nabla \phi)^2\right]+\frac{S_{p.p}}{T}$$
and then I would like to solve the equation using perturbation theory when ##Q## or somehow...
Before I start, let me say that I have looked into textbooks and I know this is a standard problem, but I just can't get the result right...
My attempt goes as follows:
We notice that the amplitude of this diagram is given by $$\begin{align*}K_2(p) &= \frac{i(-i...
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I am a little confused about the way most textbooks and notes I've read find the beta function for QED. They find it by looking at how the photon propagator varies with momentum ##q##, in particular in the context of a ##2\rightarrow2## scattering process which is proportional to...
In this article [1] we can read an explanation about Wilson's approach to renormalization
I have read that Kenneth G Wilson favoured the path integral/many histories interpretation of Feynman in quantum mechanics to explain it. I was wondering if he did also consider that multiple worlds...
I was reading about the renormalization of ##\phi^4## theory and it was mentioned that in order to renormalize the 2-point function ##\Gamma^{(2)}(p)## we add the counterterm :
\delta \mathcal{L}_1 = -\dfrac{gm^2}{32\pi \epsilon^2}\phi^2
to the Lagrangian, which should give rise to a...
I am still rather new to renormalising QFT, still using the cut-off scheme with counterterms, and have only looked at the ##\varphi^4## model to one loop order (in 4D). In that case, I can renormalise with a counterterm to the one-loop four-point 1PI diagram at a certain energy scale. I can...
Quantum gravity theories and GUTs are nonrenormalizable theories, but does this actually mean that these theories must be flawed, or does it mean that renormalization must be a flawed concept, or is this not actually a problem? If it is impossible to produce a renormalizable quantum gravity...
Is there anyone on here who could help me fill in my gaps in quantum field theory up to renormalization? I know how to canonically quantize a theory and how to use scalars (spin 0), vectors (spin 1) and spinors (spin 1/2) but lack more advanced knowledge like renormalization which I could...
In the Peskin & Schroeder textbook, the ##\beta## function for the Gross-Neveu model is discussed in problem 12.2. After computing it, I have tried checking my results with some solutions found online. My problem is that they all disagree among each other (something quite recurrent for this book...
Hello everybody!
I have a big question about the renormalization: I do not understand why the "renormalization condition" is to impose the tree level result. Now I will explain it better.
Let's take, for example, the electron self energy. The tree-level contribution is the simple fermionic...
Homework Statement
Show that, after considering all 1 particle irreducible diagrams, the bare scalar propagator becomes:
$$D_F (p)=\frac{i}{p^2-m^2-\Sigma (p^2)}$$
And that the residue of the pole is shifted to a new value, and beomes...
If we were to find some way to make the graviton self-interaction easily calculable, would applying non-perturbative renormalization on it seem any promising?
Take for example dimensional regularization. Is it correct to say that the main point of the dimensional regularization of divergent momentum integrals in QFT is to express the divergence of these integrals in such a way that they can be absorbed into the counterterms? Can someone tell me what...
I am looking for some resources describing the following content:
A light with wavelength ##\lambda## is propagating in flat spacetime. The light redshifts as its wavelength gets larger and larger. In quantum field theory, this causes an infrared divergence of the field.
What I want to know...
Question
Has the LHC released any papers or reports on the observed running of any of the three Standard Model coupling constants with energy scale from either Run-1 or Run-2 data (or both data sets)?
Last time I looked I couldn't find any data
As of January 2014, I had not locate any papers...
Proton decay has not been observed and has been constrained to be extremely rare in ordinary low temperature situations, if it happens at all (the Standard Model says it doesn't happen at all, because there are no lighter decay products that would not violate conservation of baryon number)...
I'm trying to understand renormalisation properly, however, I've run into a few stumbling blocks. To set the scene, I've been reading Matthew Schwartz's "Quantum Field Theory & the Standard Model", in particular the section on mass renormalisation in QED. As I understand it, in order to tame the...
Most QFT texts, such as Peskin&Schroeder and D. Tong's lecture notes, contain a mention that the renormalizability of an interacting theory requires the coupling constants to have correct dimensions, making scalar fields with ##\phi^5 , \phi^6, \dots## interactions uninteresting. Maybe there are...
I've done some recent reading on IR divergences (propagators becoming singular, etc.). I believe I understand collinear divergences (to some extent)... but I'm not sure about total energies for (primarily) soft photons.
In all scattering experiments, total energy should be conserved - but if...
In quantum gravity, I get 'mixed signals' as regards renormalizability. My state of confusion is being caused, I suspect, by an incomplete understanding of what is covered under t'Hooft's 1972 proof that non-Abelian gauge theories are renormalizable. ( = Nobel Prize 1999).
Specifically, some...
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effective field theory
non-abelian gauge theories
quantum gravity
renormalization
In his paper Quantum Field Theory: renormalization and the renormalization group Zinn-Justin states:
Low energy physics does not depend on all the details of the microscopic model because some RG has an IR fixed point or at least a low dimension fixed surface. Of course at this stage the next...
There are several reasons given in the literature, why UV infinities arise in QFT in the first place. My problem is putting them together, i.e. understand how they are related to each other.
So... UV divergences arise and thus we need to renormalize, because:
We have infinite number of...
The pole masses of the heavy quarks (c, b and t) are relatively well defined in QCD (i.e. the solution of m²(p²) = p² extrapolated using the beta function and the available data from other values of µ usually obtained based upon model dependent decompositions of hadron masses that include these...
Hello all, I hope you can give me a hand with a QFT homework I'm working on. We are to compute the beta equation of a Non-abelian SU(N) theory with: Complex scalars (massless), bosons, ghosts. My question is referring to the Boson self-energy scalar loop correction.
1. Homework Statement
We...
The Electron Rest Mass is considered as a fundamental constant of nature.
In relativistic Quantum Field Theory, in contrast, divergences arise. In order to deal with these divergences, one uses renormalization. According to this renormalization, the 'macroscopic' parameters of the lagrangian...
Given a Yukawa coupling as a function of scale and a vev, how can I compute the corresponding pole mas?
Understandably most paper explain how from a measured pole mass one can compute the running mass, for example, Eq. 19 here. However I want to compute the pole mass from the running mass. In...
Does it make sense to talk about the top mass at energies below mt, although in all processes the corresponding energy scale is above mt because of the rest mass energy of the top quark?
Using an effective field theory approach, the top quark decouples at energies below the top quark mass and...
Hi, I am about to work on the problem of trying to find a renormalization program for bound states in QFT. Any suggestions/advice on where to start would be much appreciated.
I have read many times that a theory (such as gravity) that contains couplings with negative mass dimensions cannot be asymptotically free. Does anyone have a reference that proves that that's the case? The argument is usually just that the coupling grows with energy, as seen in the...
Possibly very silly question in QFT. Consider the Lagrangian for a scalar field theory.
A term like
g/φ^2
should be renormalizable on power counting arguments. The mass dimension of g should be
2 (D-1)
where D is the number of space-time dimensions.Does this make sense?
On page 164-165 of srednicki's printed version (chapter 27) on other renormalization schemes, he arrives at the equation $$m_{ph}^{2} = m^2 \left [1 \left ( +\frac{5}{12}\alpha(ln \frac{\mu^2}{m^2}) +c' \right ) + O(\alpha^2)\right]$$
But after taking a log and dividing by 2 he arrives at...
I guess my question is pretty basic, and following a procedure in the textbook by Lahiri and Pal. You can see the relevant pages at
https://books.google.com/books?id=_UmPP8Yr5mYC&pg=PA245&source=gbs_toc_r&cad=4#v=onepage&q&f=false
On eqs. (12.84)-(12.86). I don't see how to get from (12.85) to...
Hi all -- can anyone offer a qualitative explanation of why it is that couplings run with the energy in *relativistic* quantum theory, and not in non-relativistic? Some insight here would be much appreciated. Thanks.
In the canonical formulation of QFT (to which I've been exposed), it is always argued that only differences in energy are physically observable and so we can deal with the fact that the vacuum energy is infinite by redefining the vacuum such that its energy is zero and we subsequently measure...
According to Peskin, p.414, at the bottom, as part of calculating the ##\beta## functions of a theory, we need to fix the counter terms by setting the "typical invariants" built from the external leg momenta to be of order ##−M^2##. For a 4-point function, these invariants are s, t and u...
I am trying to calculate the ##\beta## functions of the massless pseudoscalar Yukawa theory, following Peskin & Schroeder, chapter 12.2. The Lagrangian is
##{L}=\frac{1}{2}(\partial_\mu \phi)^2-\frac{\lambda}{4!}\phi^4+\bar{\psi}(i\gamma^\mu \partial_\mu)\psi-ig\bar{\psi}\gamma^5\psi\phi.##...
The problem statement.
When an exercises say " the interaction in a QFT has dimensions Δ" , what does it mean?, it means the field or the Lagrangian has this mass dimension?
In this exercise I'm trying to find the classical beta function (β-function) for the assciated couling.
I was trying to learn renormalization in the context of ChPT using momentum-space cut-off regularization procedure at one-loop order using order of p^2 Lagrangian. So,
1. There are counter terms in ChPT of order of p^4 when calculating in one-loop order using Lagrangian of order p^2 .
2...
I am currently studying QFT with 'An Introduction to Quantum Field Theory' by peskin. In part 2 (renormalization) of the book, he introduces counterterms and shows how to compute scattering amplitude with them.
Below are counterterms of \phi^4 theory:
Then he calculates a 2-2 scattering process...