What is Russian: Definition and 88 Discussions

The Russian Revolution was a period of political and social revolution that took place in the former Russian Empire and began during the First World War. Commencing in 1917 with the fall of the House of Romanov and concluding in 1923 with the Bolshevik establishment of the Soviet Union (at the end of the Russian Civil War), the Russian Revolution was a series of two revolutions: the first of which overthrew the imperial government and the second placed the Bolsheviks in power.
Beginning with the February Revolution in 1917, the first revolt focused in and around the then-capital Petrograd (now Saint Petersburg). After major military losses during the war, the Russian Army had reverted to mutiny. In response, members of Russia's parliament (called the Duma) assumed control of the country, and went on to form the Russian Provisional Government. This government was dominated by the interests of prominent capitalists, as well as the Russian nobility and aristocracy.
The army's leadership believed that they did not have the means to suppress the revolution, and this caused the Tsar of the Russian Empire, Nicholas II, to step down from his throne. Grassroots community assemblies (called Soviets), dominated by soldiers and urban industrial proletariats initially permitted the new Provisional Government to rule, but they insisted on a prerogative (privilege) in order to influence the government and to control various militias. A period of dual power ensued, where the Provisional Government held state power while the network of Soviets, led by socialists, had the allegiance of the lower classes, as well as, increasingly, the left-leaning urban middle class.
During this chaotic period, there were frequent mutinies, protests and strikes. Many socialist political organizations were engaged in daily struggle and vied for influence within the Duma and the Soviets, central among which were the Bolsheviks ("Ones of the Majority") led by Vladimir Lenin. He campaigned for an immediate end to Russia's participation in the war, granting land to the peasants, and providing bread to the urban workers. When the Provisional Government chose to continue fighting the war with Germany, the Bolsheviks and other socialist factions exploited the virtually universal disdain towards the war effort as justification to advance the revolution further. The Bolsheviks turned workers' militias under their control into the Red Guards (later the Red Army), over which they exerted substantial control.The situation climaxed with the October Revolution in 1917, a Bolshevik-led armed insurrection by workers and soldiers in Petrograd that successfully overthrew the Provisional Government, transferring all its authority to the Soviets. They soon relocated the national capital to Moscow. The Bolsheviks had secured a strong base of support within the Soviets and, as the supreme governing party, established a federal government dedicated to reorganizing the former empire into the world's first socialist state, to practice soviet democracy on a national and international scale. Their promise to end Russia's participation in the First World War was fulfilled when the Bolshevik leaders signed the Treaty of Brest-Litovsk with Germany in March 1918. To further secure the new state, the Bolsheviks established the Cheka, a secret police that functioned as a revolutionary security service to weed out, execute, or punish those considered to be "enemies of the people" in campaigns consciously modeled on those of the French Revolution.
Soon after, civil war erupted among the "Reds" (Bolsheviks), the "Whites" (counter-revolutionaries), the independence movements, and other socialist factions opposed to the Bolsheviks. It continued for several years, during which the Bolsheviks defeated both the Whites and all rival socialists. Victorious, they reconstituted themselves as the Communist Party. They also established Soviet power in the newly independent republics of Armenia, Azerbaijan, Belarus, Georgia and Ukraine. They brought these jurisdictions into unification under the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics (USSR) in 1922. While many notable historical events occurred in Moscow and Petrograd, there were also major changes in cities throughout the state, and among national minorities throughout the empire and in the rural areas, where peasants took over and redistributed land.

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  1. shmwot

    Looking for Soviet era texts similar to MIR publishers

    The books from MIR publishers just seem so hardcore I loved a lot of the books, most of the introductory mathematics I learnt is from Russian texts. Any recommendations y'all for cool books around the time or rare texts in general My college has a nice library and I just want to read everything...
  2. sbrothy

    Russian soldiers can refuse to fight?

    According to this article from The Guardian russian "troops" can refuse to fight and expect "light" punishment as the country is not officially at war. I cannot help but wonder why any russian soldiers would fight at all then? Surely this cannot be true? Proscripted soldiers probably don't...
  3. T

    B Is this determinable? (Size of this Russian patrol boat)

    Is it possible to determine the length of the boat by using the physics of the shrapnel arcs? Can the traces of the arcs be used to determine the distance the shrapnel travels and then be send to determine the boat length. Tex
  4. anorlunda

    Cuban Missile Crisis, the Russian Side of the Story

    https://arstechnica.com/science/2022/04/that-time-when-soviet-rocket-scientists-nearly-nuked-new-york-city/ Details revealed in this article are eye popping. Must reading.
  5. M

    What data can we use to help evaluate Russian biowarfare allegations?

    For a week I've been seeing Russian allegations that the U.S. was researching bioweapons in the Ukraine. Today's example specifically targets a company, Metabiota. To be clear, I have seen nothing persuasive so far, for the following reasons: Metabiota's entire role is to track emerging...
  6. jtbell

    Old road trip: Along the (Soviet) Russian border

    The current events took me back to my long-ago close encounter with the Finnish-Soviet border during the Cold War, during a bicycle-camping trip in the summer of 1980. I flew my bicycle and camping gear to Helsinki. My cousins drove me out to their summer cottage on a lake northeast of...
  7. phinds

    Russian Old-PC Museum: A Peek into the Soviet Computer Revolution

    Cleaning out some old files, I ran across this link that my son sent me a couple of years ago about a Russian fellow who started collecting very old PCs and couldn't stop. It's not technical, and the computers are almost all Russian, but he's a charming fellow who loves old computers and has...
  8. Baluncore

    Russian rocket accident releases radiation

    https://www.abc.net.au/news/2019-08-09/russian-rocket-explosion-kills-two-sparks-radiation-concerns/11398604 Radiation has been released following a Russian rocket explosion at the Nyonoksa naval ballistic missile test site. Part of the White Sea has been closed. 5 people now reported killed...
  9. Greg Bernhardt

    News Russian Nuke Sub Crew Prevented ‘Planetary Catastrophe’

    Anyone been following this story? Sensational or did we really narrowly miss a global nuclear disaster? What were the possible consequences of the fire spreading to the reactor? https://www.bloomberg.com/news/articles/2019-07-08/stricken-russian-nuke-sub-crew-prevented-planetary-catastrophe
  10. C

    Russian style nuclear powered drive for a space ship?

    Russia has developed a micronized nuclear powered drive for ballistic misiles and cruize misiles. This is obviously a very aggressive and environment polluting action. However, could such nuclear powered drive be used for space ships, that would start in space and do not touch the atmosphere of...
  11. berkeman

    Medical Olympic Russian Curler Busted for Performance-Enhancing Drug

    I didn't know whether to post this in the "Weird News" thread or here in the Medical forum, but I'd be interested to hear what folks thought would be the huge advantage of taking meldonium to help with Curling...
  12. F

    Classical Physics books written in Russian

    I'm a Physics and Russian Langauge major at school and was wondering if anyone has had any good run-ins with any undergrad level textbooks in Russian. The venerable Landau and Lifshitz on mechanics has been wonderful. Also, if anyone knows where I can find Matveev's "Mechanics and Theory of...
  13. KAL255

    Cossack Dance Drills: For Beginners & Russian Couples

    is there any cossack dance drills that are for starters for people like me and my wife. I am russian but she is wanting to make up some things because we are at a dance off.
  14. A

    What was the cost of a Soviet high school math textbook in 1976?

    I have been learning how to read scientific Russian, and my reading material is the Soviet high school math textbook Algebra and Beginning Analysis, (1976), edited by Kolmogorov. (I've seen the title also translated as Algebra and Elements of Analysis). The Russian title is Алгебра и Начала...
  15. zoobyshoe

    Russian Code Found In US Utility Computer

    https://www.washingtonpost.com/world/national-security/russian-hackers-penetrated-us-electricity-grid-through-a-utility-in-vermont/2016/12/30/8fc90cc4-ceec-11e6-b8a2-8c2a61b0436f_story.html?utm_term=.3d3f0ce2546f Source: Signs of Russian Hack Found in Vermont Utility System | NBC Chicago...
  16. kdrdgn07

    Engineering I need Russian sources (Aerodynamic and Flight Mechanics)

    Hi guys. I need ur suggestion. Firstly, (I got to say that I'm new about this topic) I'm studying mechanical engineering and It's my first year. I've never learned about fluid mechanics or termodynamic or differantial equations before but I'm dealing with Aircrafts especially UAV. I've read...
  17. J

    A Russian claim about process for elements transmutation

    What do you think? RU2563511 MICROBIOLOGICAL METHOD OF TRANSMUTATION OF CHEMICAL ELEMENTS AND CONVERSION OF ISOTOPES OF CHEMICAL ELEMENTS Viktor Kurashov, Tamara Sakhno SUBSTANCE: radioactive raw materials containing radioactive chemical elements or their isotopes, are treated with an aqueous...
  18. Alltimegreat1

    Is Fluency in Russian Beneficial for Astronomers in the US?

    Assuming a candidate for an astronomer position in the US fulfills the standard skills and requirements, would it be seen as an added plus to speak, write, and understand Russian fluently?
  19. B

    Other Interested in purchasing Russian textbooks in mathematics

    Dear Physics Forum friends, I recently got interested in the Russian textbooks in mathematics, which I am completely blown away by their exposition, insights, and excellent problem sets. I have been reading translated versions of Russian books written by authors like Kolmogorov, Arnold, and...
  20. Demystifier

    What is a Russian style in mathematics?

    Many times I have seen the claim that some text on mathematics is written in a "good Russian style". What does that mean? Somehow I've got an impression that it is a kind of opposite to the Bourbaki style. Namely, a Russian style would not consist of a dry series of abstract general theorems...
  21. Greg Bernhardt

    News Why Did Turkey Shoot Down a Russian Jet Near the Syria Border?

    Well this really complicates matters :frown: Turkey Says It Shot Down Russian Warplane Near Syria Border http://www.bloomberg.com/news/articles/2015-11-24/unidentified-warplane-crashes-in-syria-near-turkish-border
  22. P

    Russian cosmonaut back after record 879 days in space

    Russian cosmonaut back after record 879 days in space Russian cosmonaut Gennady Padalka returned safely to Earth with two other astronauts from the International Space Station Saturday with the record for having spent the most time in space. Continue reading...
  23. Monsterboy

    News Russian opposition leader, a Putin critic shot dead

    Boris Nemtsov was shot in the head 4 times. http://m.bbc.com/news/world-europe-31669061
  24. S

    Russian soliders dropped from planes without parachutes?

    There are several sites on the web that pose a physics problem that states that "the Russians" sometimes dropped soliders from planes into the snow without parachutes. (e.g. on physicsforums we have: https://www.physicsforums.com/threads/parachuting-inside-bales-of-hay.792412/ ) Is this a...
  25. R

    Russian Article Help: O A Ovanov, L V Solina & V A Demshina '73

    Hello All, I am searching for the following article: O A Ovanov, L V Solina, and V A Demshina 1973 Phys. Met. Metallogr. 35 81. Or at least the link for the above. Thanks, Rajini.
  26. A

    Russian math and science (chemistry and physics) textbooks

    I want to learn math and science from the ground up as my foundations are very weak. Most people I asked recommended that I try to get my hands on Russian textbooks as they are the 'best of the best'. Hearing this got me interested! I have six questions: 1. Are the Russian math and science...
  27. Astronuc

    News Russian and Chinese military reaching out

    Chinese warships in first call at an Iran port http://news.yahoo.com/chinese-warships-first-call-iran-port-205315307.htmlU.S., Canadian jets intercept 8 Russian aircraft http://news.yahoo.com/us-canadian-jets-intercept-8-russian-aircraft-232846452.html...
  28. C

    Learning Russian: Self-Teaching Tips & Resources

    Hello everyone! I'm really interested in learning forigen languages. I'm taking Spanish in school, and have achieved enough fluency to be able to participate in most conversations. Now, I'd like to start learning Russian. I've started with teaching myself the Cyrillic alphabet. Is this a...
  29. nsaspook

    Russian GLONASS offline for 11 hours

    http://gpsworld.com/glonass-gone-then-back/ Bad software update?
  30. T

    Russian Math Textbooks from MSU?

    Does anyone any good math (or physics) textbook written in style of the MSU Faculty of Mechanics and Mathematics,by famous russian mathematicians like V.I.Arnol'd ,Dubrovin ,Gelfand,Piskunov...I mean book that teach you the math in all its rigour but with an orientation toward the natural sciences?
  31. S

    Russian made flask - who made it?

    I have a well made stainless steel hip flask I just bought. Supposedly russian made with a Stalin emblem on the side. My problem is it's stamped on the bottom with the hammer and sickle and the word RUSSIA. If it was really russian would it have the word RUSSIA on the bottom instead of cyrillic...
  32. D

    Uncovering the Mystery: Comparing the Russian Meteor to the Tunguska Event

    Back in february, a meteor came down over Russia and exploded in midair. I can't help but compare this to the Tunguska event. Thus my question. Why were the two meteor explosions both in the same general area of Earth?
  33. D

    Understanding the Delayed Effects of the Russian Meteor Strike

    Why was there a delay between the explosion from the meteor in Russia and the sonic boom hitting the cities? And how long was it?
  34. R

    Coincidence of asteroid and Russian meteor at same time.

    Astronomers have calculated that the Russian meteor and asteroid 2012 DA14 have very different orbits: Astronomers Calculate Orbit of Chelyabinsk Meteorite. Still because of the very unlikely probability of their occurring together purely by chance, I would like to see some simulations of...
  35. M

    Is Russian meteor related to a asteroid known as 2012 DA14?

    I doubt it. The trajectory of meteor was very close to be horizontal, so it could make revolution('s) around the Earth and fly opposite direction to asteroid known as 2012 DA14, being a remnants of 2012 DA14.
  36. P

    Japanese, Chinese, or Russian?

    Japanese, Chinese, or Russian?? Hi, all! I went to the SCUWiP about a week ago and it was soooo exciting! I LOVE physics! Anyway, just wanted to ask your opinion about the second language thing. I have heard that SpaceX is looking for physicists who speak both English and either Japanese...
  37. A

    Russian mathematics olympiad question

    Hello! The following question was asked in a Soviet Union mathematics Olympiad about 2-3 decades ago. A friend brought it up a few days ago and it has been bugging us since then. The problem goes along the lines of: "There are 10 ammo boxes each containing 10 bullets, and each bullet...
  38. S

    Schools Russian universities reputation and entry requirements question

    Hi everybody. I have completed a BSc Honors in physics degree from a public sector Pakistani university, and am considering my graduate school options. I had a few queries I've been unable to find good answers to: 1) How does a 2-3 year MSc from a good Russian university compare to a 2...
  39. H

    Resonance in action: Russian Bridge

    Somebody slept through their lecture on resonance. I don't know how to link video. http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=WEQrt_w7gN4&feature=related https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=WEQrt_w7gN4&feature=related
  40. S

    Russian Roulette and schrodinger's cat

    We all the famous schrodinger's cat experiment and its outcomes which sound stupid in classic or macroscopic world. A similar thought came to my mind for Russian roulette game. Suppose you lock 2 game players in a room with a revolver of single shot and they start playing Russian roulette by...
  41. N

    Lingusitics Russian language science maths podcasts

    I'm trying to learn Russian and finding one of the hardest parts is developing an "ear" for the language (it's mostly just one continuous stream of "Sh" and "rrrr" and the average Russian seems to speak at Mach 3 :smile:). I've found listening to podcasts (old BBC ones) in the car on the way...
  42. D

    Programs Double major physics and russian?

    Right now I am a freshman studying physics and considering adding russian as a second major. I already speak it pretty fluently, so the only challenging part would be the required literature classes. With a goal of going to grad school in physics, will a russian degree even matter, or would my...
  43. S

    Russian Roulette probability distribution

    Hi. This isn't exactly like the previous thread and not a homework problem. I'd just like to check the validity of my solution. It concerns the relation between a discrete and continuous probability distribution. The problem: A player inserts a bullet into a 6-chamber revolver. He then spins...
  44. Also sprach Zarathustra

    MHB What is Arzela's Lemma in Fichtengoltz's Book?

    Hello! I've a problem understanding the following lines(Arzela lemma, and first two sentences of a proof) from Fichtengoltz's book. I know, that some(2 members?) of you know Russian, help me please translate these line into English, with a short explanation on bold lines. Thank you!
  45. rootX

    News Russia Elections: Putin Facing Slump in Popularity Since Kursk Disaster

    http://www.bbc.co.uk/news/world-europe-16024938 http://www.bbc.co.uk/news/world-europe-16025648 http://www.reuters.com/article/2011/12/04/us-russia-election-idUSTRE7B019B20111204 I am bit shocked to see these stories coming out of Russia. This one was from few weeks ago and there was lots...
  46. H

    Is There Evidence of Alien Life in Russia?

    I found this news in the yahoo. I think it's amazing. The first extra-ordinary proof of alien existence http://au.news.yahoo.com/thewest/a/-/offbeat/11711701/russias-chilling-alien-discovery
  47. S

    Should I learn Chinese or Russian?

    Hi all. I'm trying to fill up some humanities requirements, and thought I would actually try to learn something useful for my career. I want to go into aerospace, but I'm not sure which language will be more useful . . . Russia is IMO the current world leader in human space flight and we have a...
  48. M

    Is My Russian Military Hip Flask Actually Made in China?

    I bought a stainless steel hip flask on Ebay supposedly russian military. Picture of Lenin and a flag with a cyrillic word on it over a red star. On the bottom it's stamped with a hammer and sickle and RUSSIA (didn't show that in the pics on Ebay). Would russia use the word RUSSIA? I would...
  49. C

    Schools Admission process in Russian universities

    The admission to Russian universities is open. Here is some information on general steps of application for a study in Russia. For getting in contact with the university you may send just of the documents by E-mail. Application packege consists of application form (persnal data), copies of...
  50. Pengwuino

    Greg Bernhardt, mild mannered webmaster or evil russian spam king?

    We have all fallen right into his trap. DISCUSS