Rutherford Definition and 9 Discussions

Ernest Rutherford, 1st Baron Rutherford of Nelson, (30 August 1871 – 19 October 1937) was a New Zealand-born British physicist who came to be known as the father of nuclear physics. Encyclopædia Britannica considers him to be the greatest experimentalist since Michael Faraday (1791–1867). He also spent a substantial amount of his career abroad, in both Canada and the United Kingdom.
In early work, Rutherford discovered the concept of radioactive half-life, the radioactive element radon, and differentiated and named alpha and beta radiation. This work was performed at McGill University in Montreal, Quebec, Canada. It is the basis for the Nobel Prize in Chemistry he was awarded in 1908 "for his investigations into the disintegration of the elements, and the chemistry of radioactive substances", for which he was the first Oceanian Nobel laureate, and the first to perform the awarded work in Canada.
Rutherford moved in 1907 to the Victoria University of Manchester (today University of Manchester) in the UK, where he and Thomas Royds proved that alpha radiation is helium nuclei. Rutherford performed his most famous work after he became a Nobel laureate. In 1911, although he could not prove that it was positive or negative, he theorized that atoms have their charge concentrated in a very small nucleus, and thereby pioneered the Rutherford model of the atom, through his discovery and interpretation of Rutherford scattering by the gold foil experiment of Hans Geiger and Ernest Marsden. He performed the first artificially induced nuclear reaction in 1917 in experiments where nitrogen nuclei were bombarded with alpha particles. As a result, he discovered the emission of a subatomic particle which, in 1919, he called the "hydrogen atom" but, in 1920, he more accurately named the proton.Rutherford became Director of the Cavendish Laboratory at the University of Cambridge in 1919. Under his leadership the neutron was discovered by James Chadwick in 1932 and in the same year the first experiment to split the nucleus in a fully controlled manner was performed by students working under his direction, John Cockcroft and Ernest Walton. After his death in 1937, he was buried in Westminster Abbey near Sir Isaac Newton. The chemical element rutherfordium (element 104) was named after him in 1997.

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  1. Gabrielmonteiro

    I On the Rydberg Constant and the Emission Lines

    With regard to Rutherford's atomic model, and Rydberg's discovery in general for the hydrogen distribution lines, what does Rydberg's constant physically mean? Its unit is m ^ -1, as if it were a rate, but it was not clear to me its physical meaning. And why does it grow with atomic mass...
  2. F

    Correcting results to fit Rutherford's Scattering Formula

    I'm a Physics undergraduate at University and in my labs module I had to recreate the Rutherford Scattering experiment. The basic setup was similar to this: My problem is that this setup only records data in one plane and not 3D. In reality the particles are scattered in a sort of cone...
  3. TheSodesa

    Maximum change in the kinetic energy of a particle

    Homework Statement Show that the largest possible change in the kinetic energy , ##\Delta E_{kin}##, of a particle of mass ##m## running into another particle of mass ##M## at rest in the lab coordinate system is \Delta E_{kin} = \frac{-4AE_{kin}}{(1+A)^{2}}, where ##A = \frac{M}{m}##...
  4. jinn

    Scattering alpha particles

    Homework Statement Onto an Aluminium 50μm thick plate, we send a beam of alpha particles with unknown kinetic energy. the cross section of the beam is 2cm2, density 1013 / scm2 . Whats the kinetic energy of the particles if every second we sense 105 scattered particles between the angles 40°...
  5. CrazyNinja

    Nucleus at the center?

    How do we know that the nucleus is at the center of the atom? I know about the Geiger/Marsden experiment and also of its results. They observed a few α-particles scattering almost at 180°. Hence they concluded that there must exist a high density, positively charged "center" in the atom. But on...
  6. R

    Geiger counters and activity

    I'm doing high school physics and if a question says something like: A radioactive source gives count rate of 110 counts per second Can you say that the ACTIVITY is also 110 bq? My second question is how would a gieger counter detect gamma radiation? It is the least ionising of all three...
  7. thegirl

    Rutherford Scattering model geometry

    Hi, I was just wondering if someone could help clarify how pi - theta = phi? That is the link to the youtube video I was watching, the guys pretty good check him out if you want to learn how to derive the differential scattering cross section.
  8. U

    Nuclear Form Factor - Scaling

    Homework Statement [/B] b) For a Form factor of form ##\theta_{(1-r)}## and ##\frac{1}{1 + e^{\frac{r-R}{a}}}##, how will these change when ##r \rightarrow 2r##? c) How would one accelerate and observe scattered protons? Homework Equations The Attempt at a Solution Part(b) [/B] Rate...
  9. D

    Rutherford's atom experiment problem

    Homework Statement In 1911, Ernest Rutherford discovered the nucleus of the atom by observing the scattering of helium nuclei from gold nuclei. If a helium nucleus with a mass of 6.68 10^-27 kg, a charge of +2e, and an initial velocity of 1.30 10^7 m/s is projected head-on toward a gold...