Torus Definition and 9 Discussions

In geometry, a torus (plural tori) is a surface of revolution generated by revolving a circle in three-dimensional space about an axis that is coplanar with the circle.
If the axis of revolution does not touch the circle, the surface has a ring shape and is called a torus of revolution. If the axis of revolution is tangent to the circle, the surface is a horn torus. If the axis of revolution passes twice through the circle, the surface is a spindle torus. If the axis of revolution passes through the center of the circle, the surface is a degenerate torus, a double-covered sphere. If the revolved curve is not a circle, the surface is a related shape, a toroid.
Real-world objects that approximate a torus of revolution include swim rings and inner tubes. Eyeglass lenses that combine spherical and cylindrical correction are toric lenses.
A torus should not be confused with a solid torus, which is formed by rotating a disk, rather than a circle, around an axis. A solid torus is a torus plus the volume inside the torus. Real-world objects that approximate a solid torus include O-rings, non-inflatable lifebuoys, ring doughnuts, and bagels.
In topology, a ring torus is homeomorphic to the Cartesian product of two circles: S1 × S1, and the latter is taken to be the definition in that context. It is a compact 2-manifold of genus 1. The ring torus is one way to embed this space into Euclidean space, but another way to do this is the Cartesian product of the embedding of S1 in the plane with itself. This produces a geometric object called the Clifford torus, a surface in 4-space.
In the field of topology, a torus is any topological space that is homeomorphic to a torus. A coffee cup and a doughnut are both topological tori.
An example of a torus can be constructed by taking a rectangular strip of flexible material, for example, a rubber sheet, and joining the top edge to the bottom edge, and the left edge to the right edge, without any half-twists (compare Möbius strip).

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  1. H

    What is the symbol of this torus?

    Hi Pfs, I can get a taurus from a square: I identify the oppsite sides. It has the symbol $R^2/ Z^2 $ Suppose now that i replace this square by a rectangle with the length L ans 2L. I identify the opposite sides in the same manner. The new taurus is also a quotient of $R^2$ but how to write it?
  2. A

    Doubt about a unit vector in toroidal coordinates

    The system considers a torus that has a wire wrapped around it, through which a current flows. In this way, a field originates in the phi direction. The direction of current is "theta" in the spherical coordinate system but in toroidal system, in several book shows that the electrical current...
  3. Ryan Doucette

    Nuclear Fusion: Electron Thermal Transport Terminology

    I am an undergrad physics major in my final semester currently taking Intro to Thermodynamics. As a final project, each student must choose a topic related to thermodynamics that is more advanced than what is covered in the curriculum and write a paper and present our findings to the class on...
  4. Wendel

    Constructing a torus

    Homework Statement Suppose we wish to construct a torus {(x,y,z)∈ℝ³:(R-√(x²+y²))²+z²=r²} whose axis of symmetry is the z-axis and the distance from the center of the tube to the center of the torus is R. Let r be the radius of the tube. Homework Equations The large circle in the xy-plane...
  5. peroAlex

    Oscillation of a Charged Particle

    Homework Statement At our university we were given this problem: charged ball with mass of ##m = 0.0001 kg## and charge ##Q = -10^{-5} C## is placed on geometric axis of thin torus with inner radius of ##r_{inner} = 0.05 m##, outer radius of ##r_{outer} = 0.1 m## and surface charge density...
  6. Mr. Rho

    Mathematica Rotation of 3D Plot using Euler angles

    So, I'm trying to plot a 3D "dipole" (an arrow with a small torus around it basically) in mathematica, and want to rotate it according to Euler angles... I use this code for the rotation matrix: rot[a, b, g] := RotationMatrix[g, {1, 0, 0}].RotationMatrix[b, {0, 1, 0}].RotationMatrix[a, {0, 0...
  7. M

    Penrose stairs on the torus

    Nobody mentions that Penrose stairs is possible on the torus. I wonder Why. isn't this obvious?
  8. Mr. Rho

    Poloidal current in toroidal solenoid

    Hi, I'm trying to figure out how the current density for a poloidal current in toroidal solenoid is written. I found you may define a torus by an upper conical ring ##(a<r<b,\theta=\theta_1,\phi)##, a lower conical ring ##(a<r<b,\theta=\theta_2,\phi)##, an inner spherical ring...
  9. Philip

    ± sqrt(b^2 - a^2) = ± b ± ai ?

    I came across this strange relationship when deriving the degree-4 equation for a torus. First thing that comes to mind is the 'Freshman's Dream'. Apparently, it was pure coincidence that they are equal. But, I don't believe in coincidences when it comes to a math expression. There is something...