In physics, physical optics, or wave optics, is the branch of optics that studies interference, diffraction, polarization, and other phenomena for which the ray approximation of geometric optics is not valid. This usage tends not to include effects such as quantum noise in optical communication, which is studied in the sub-branch of coherence theory.
In optical communications, one of the modulation methods is to control the optical power (Simplest case, for example, bright = bit 1, dim = bit 0). I learned that we can achieve this by a Mach-Zehnder modulator (MZ modulator).
Simply speaking, the principle of MZ modulator is to split the input...
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Let’s consider a photon of wavelength λ is being reflected across of gap d meters. The photon is a reflected back and forth between the same points on two horizontal sheets that reflect 100% of the light. What happens when the distance is smaller than wavelength?
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I was read this article(https://engineering.purdue.edu/wcchew/ece604f19/Lecture%20Notes/Lect31.pdf).
I was read this paper about Huygens' principle(https://engineering.purdue.edu/wcchew/ece604f19/Lecture%20Notes/Lect31.pdf)
Main idea of Huygens' principle is how wave function ##ψ(r)##...
For my High School Physics course, I have been tasked to design an experiment investigating the properties of a CD diffraction grating, and we MUST make a graph. Unfortunately, we only have two lasers of different wavelength, so changing the wavelength and measuring ##theta## would be a bad...
I heard that the speed of light doesn't depend on the wavelength or frequency of it, how does it happen? I don't understand it because the ultimate equation is c = fλ (where c is the speed of velocity of light, f is the frequency and λ is the wavelength of it...).
I have been revisiting my notes from my 2nd and 3rd year physics degree - especially the ones covering Fourier Optics, and other classical wave optics - and it is quite rewarding to revisit the historical / exploratory aspect of the series of discoveries, that built the foundations of this...
Homework Statement
A monochromatic plane wave with wavelength 500µm is propagating through a dissipative medium with refractive index 1-0.0002i. It approaching the edge of the medium, and will pass out into free space. If the angle of incidence is not 90°, how much will the wave deflect as it...
Homework Statement
I have an object at distance x1 from the first thick lens(convex) then air at distance x2 to the next thick lens(concave) then air of distance x3 to a mirror. I need to build an ABCD matrix representing this.
Homework Equations
thick lens equation: [ A B ] = [ 1-d/R1...
Homework Statement
Calculate the speed of sound in the classroom. You can use: Tuning forks, water, beaker, pvc pipe, ringstands, etc.
Homework Equations
v = f(wavelength)
For fundamental frequency: L = 1/4(wavelength)
For fundamental frequency: f = v/4L
The Attempt at a Solution
Here is...
Hi,
Can someone please explain as to why light beams attract or repel each other even when they don't have charge. Seems like it behaves like two current carrying parallel wires. There is very little material about this which goes completely above the head.
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Dear friends I am new at this forum thank you for accepting my application first of all.
My question is that I don't understand the optics/physics behind the reason why Si-based CCDs are not sensitive for IR-light (above 1000-1100 nm) if on the top of the p-type Si there is a SiO2 layer which...
1. Homework Statement
Light of wavelength 6000Å illuminates a single slit of width 10-4m. Calculate the angular spread of first diffraction minima.
Homework Equations
d*y/D = nλ
Y = nλ/a for minima
Y = (2n±1)λ/a for maxima
Y stands for the position on screen, d is slit width and D is...
The electromagnetic wave derivation uses the fact that charge enclosed is zero and it goes to obey plane wave equations.
Lets say we were deriving a wave equation from maxwell's equations for electron wave motion, but we assume that charge enclosed is not zero, and come up with some...
Homework Statement
One diffraction grating has 9600 lines uniformly spaced over a width of 3cm, it is illuminated by light from a mercury vapour discharge.
The other has 5000 lines/cm and is a 3.5cm grating, this one is used in the second order to resolve spectral lines close to 587.8002 nm...
I know when we see an object then the frequencies of photons reflected from the object carry the information about the colors. Frequencies of visible spectrum helps us to visualize colors. However which properties of photons help us to estimate distance,speed,size,width,height,depth, plainness...
Homework Statement
A point source of light (wavelength \lambda = 600 \, \text{nm} ) is located a distance x = 10\,\text{m} away from an opaque screen with a small circular hole of radius b. A very small photodiode is moved on an axis from very far away toward the screen. The first...
I'm supposed to find the magnetic field, the scalar electric potential and magnetic vector potential for the following electromagnetic wave:
\vec{E} = E_0 cos (kz - \omega t) \left \{ \hat{x} + \hat{y} \right \}
Alright, the magnetic field goes as
\vec{B} = \frac{1}{c} \hat{k} \times \vec{E}...
Hello!
This post is strictly related to my previous one. Let's consider the same context and the same image. Regarding the oblique incidence of a wave upon an interface between two dielectric, all the texts and all the lectures write an equation like the following:
e^{-j k_1 y \sin \theta_i} +...
My question stems from a discussion I had with my colleague today. In Electomagnetic coupling , like in waveguide structures. We apply pertubation theory to find out the coupling between various modes that get coupled in the device.
My colleague said that the coupling interaction was...
In explaining x-ray diffraction of crystals, usually the approach is to consider the atoms absorb radiation and scatter it, at some angles constructive interference occur and bright spots can be observed. It seems that it is different from the diffraction of slits or gratings because in these...
In finding the angle for the mth dark fringe of single slit diffraction using Huygen's principle, they usually split the slit into equal portions. For example, to find the first dark fringe the slit is split into two equal spacings and if the path difference between the edge and the middle point...
Hi
1)Is this sentence right?
When we say for example the wavelength of red light in vacuum is 750 nm it means that the length of electric field and magnetic field that are perpendicular in the propagation direction of wave is 750 nm in one cycle?
2) We say that oscillating charges in antenna...
For electromagnetic wave if it's reflected from a perfect conductor standing wave can be form. I wonder why Poynting vector can be used to describe the intensity of standing EM wave. (see p.19 of http://web.mit.edu/viz/EM/visualizations/coursenotes/modules/guide13.pdf ).
From some textbooks...
This may be a little of a stupid question.
But I was looking at a diagram describing Bragg's Law of Diffraction.
and I was like...how can an interference happen if wave beam C and wave beam C' are hitting different points on the detector screen?! they are not hitting the same point on the...
hello ;
I need some help.I reading about TEM TE and TM Modes for Waveguides. actually I need some equations for Planar wave guide and optical fiber wave guide. I did google search. I don't understand how to write equation step by step for planar wave guide
I found this link...
I see the term o"ptical frequency" in some articles. From Wikipedia I read that it means the whole EM spectrum. But something says to me it may be only the visible part of the spectrum. Now, which definition is correct?
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Can someone please describe the diffraction orders on a nano-grating?
I am reading articles about imaging devices, and I cannot understand the diffraction orders
For example, incident wave can be mapped into a propagating wave through the -1, 0, and+1 diffraction orders.
Is any of these...
1. Consider a y-polarized electromagnetic wave with vacuum wavelength 600nm that is propagating in glass and then incident on a glass-air interface; use n=1.4 for glass. Take the interface surface to be the y-z plane, and the plane of incidence to be the x-z plane. Consider 2 incident angles...