What is Canada: Definition and 199 Discussions

Canada is a country in North America. Its ten provinces and three territories extend from the Atlantic to the Pacific and northward into the Arctic Ocean, covering 9.98 million square kilometres (3.85 million square miles), making it the world's second-largest country by total area. Its southern and western border with the United States, stretching 8,891 kilometres (5,525 mi), is the world's longest bi-national land border. Canada's capital is Ottawa, and its three largest metropolitan areas are Toronto, Montreal, and Vancouver.
Indigenous peoples have continuously inhabited what is now Canada for thousands of years. Beginning in the 16th century, British and French expeditions explored and later settled along the Atlantic coast. As a consequence of various armed conflicts, France ceded nearly all of its colonies in North America in 1763. In 1867, with the union of three British North American colonies through Confederation, Canada was formed as a federal dominion of four provinces. This began an accretion of provinces and territories and a process of increasing autonomy from the United Kingdom. This widening autonomy was highlighted by the Statute of Westminster 1931 and culminated in the Canada Act 1982, which severed the vestiges of legal dependence on the British Parliament.
Canada is a parliamentary democracy and a constitutional monarchy in the Westminster tradition. The country's head of government is the prime minister—who holds office by virtue of their ability to command the confidence of the elected House of Commons—and is appointed by the governor general, representing the monarch, who serves as head of state. The country is a Commonwealth realm and is officially bilingual at the federal level. It ranks among the highest in international measurements of government transparency, civil liberties, quality of life, economic freedom, and education. It is one of the world's most ethnically diverse and multicultural nations, the product of large-scale immigration from many other countries. Canada's long relationship with the United States has had a significant impact on its economy and culture.
A highly developed country, Canada has the seventeenth-highest nominal per-capita income globally and the sixteenth-highest ranking in the Human Development Index. Its advanced economy is the tenth-largest in the world, relying chiefly upon its abundant natural resources and well-developed international trade networks. Canada is part of several major international and intergovernmental institutions or groupings including the United Nations, NATO, the G7, the Group of Ten, the G20, the United States–Mexico–Canada Agreement, the Commonwealth of Nations, the Organisation internationale de la Francophonie, the Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation forum, and the Organization of American States.

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  1. Astronuc

    B Meteor detection/prediction: One over Toronto, ON, Canada

    https://news.yahoo.com/videos-captured-fireball-flashing-across-041651291.html @davenn Debris might be found around Niagara Falls. I don't know if that is Ontario or NY Side. I wonder if it his the water, or on land.
  2. Astronuc

    Rare gold coin from 1420s discovered in Newfoundland, Canada

    Edward Hynes was scanning the coast of Newfoundland, Canada, with a metal detector when he got a signal. He dug a hole and found a shiny gold object. https://www.cbc.ca/news/canada/newfoundland-labrador/old-gold-coin-nl-1.6646200...
  3. B

    Programs Study in Canada or the UK to become a physicist?

    Hello everyone. I am an international student going for my undergraduate studies in physics. I want to go to the University of Toronto and the University of Manchester, but I am unable to choose between the two. Which of the two universities is best to study physics, can give me a better chance...
  4. Leo Liu

    News Muslim family in Canada killed in 'premeditated' truck attack

    https://www.bbc.com/news/world-us-canada-57390398 https://lfpress.com/news/local-news/who-is-nathaniel-veltman-accused-in-alleged-london-hate-killings This tragedy happened in London, Canada (not the one in UK) where I went to high school. I was totally surprised by the fact that tragic events...
  5. Eric Recchia

    In Canada, 80% is an A-, in the States, it's a B-. Does that mean....

    Summary:: Comparing education systems from different countries. ..our education system is easier? Or does that mean our material is tougher and the grading system balances out? Or is just cultural differences. The only exception is York. It doesn't like (-) so an 80 is just an A. 90+ is an A+.
  6. S

    Other STEM jobs most in demand now in the US and Canada

    Hi everyone. As all of you are aware, the COVID-19 pandemic has had a detrimental impact on the global economy, accompanied by significant job losses and rising number of those who are unemployed. That being said, even in poor economic times, there are opportunities available. So I would pose...
  7. davenn

    Canada - Alaska discovery trip Aug-Sept 2019

    hi all For the last week - 28 Aug - 2 Sept ( and still going) trip through the Canadian Rocky Mountains and then a cruise up the Canadian and Alaskan coast. Just a few hi-light photos to share :smile: Lake Louise, Alberta with hanging glaciers Bow Falls, Banff, Alberta Main Street...
  8. Krushnaraj Pandya

    Admissions Undergraduate programs in Canada

    Good day everyone, I'm an Indian student about to pass out from high school- The competition here is intense for the few truly good engineering colleges here so I'm looking for some guidance to studying in Canadian universities. I'd really appreciate your help- Thank you. a) I am expecting a...
  9. I

    Aerospace undergrad @Purdue -- How do I get a job in Canada?

    HI, I am in my third year at Purdue University. Born Canadian but raised in the US. I wanted to get a job in Canada but don't know where to start...anyone have any suggestions? Do I just start sending a mass email to all companies and hope it ends up in front of the right person?
  10. M

    Physics Medical Physics from the UK to Canada

    Hi I am a medical physicist in the uk with a desire to transition to Canada. I am in the process of applying for permanent residency via the Canada express entry. We have a similar organisation to CAMPEP that accredits our physicists in the UK, called IPEM. I have an accredited MSc from IPEM...
  11. mcabbage

    Admissions Can additional research make up for a low GPA in graduate school admissions?

    Just looking for extra critique here: I'm a 2nd year math and physics student at a good uni in Canada. My average is in the 70s (B range, hoping to bring up to an 80/A- by the end of second year). The good thing is that Canadian unis will only look at my most recent 4 semesters or so (though I'd...
  12. E

    Schools Choosing a university in Canada

    Hi everyone. I am a Colombian student looking to study in Canada. I am trying to apply for physics undergrad programs in universities like SFU, UoCalgary and mcmaster. I am interested in astrophysics and also quantum physics Since you know a lot I would appreciate if you give me advice and...
  13. Astronuc

    Three earthquakes Mag 6.6, 6.8, 6.5 off Port Hardy, Canada

    M 6.6 - 218km SW of Port Hardy, Canada https://earthquake.usgs.gov/earthquakes/eventpage/us1000hfgn/executive 2018-10-22 05:39:40 (UTC) 49.250°N 129.478°W 11.0 km depth M 6.8 - 197km SW of Port Hardy, Canada https://earthquake.usgs.gov/earthquakes/eventpage/us1000hfgv/executive 2018-10-22...
  14. E

    Regulatory bodies for manned submersibles in Canada

    Hey guys, new member here! I am an undergrad engineering student and I am currently working on a project for a course that requires designing a ballast system for a manned submersible and I was wondering... Are there regulatory bodies in Canada that you know of that is responsible for...
  15. E

    Regulatory bodies for manned submersibles in Canada

    Hey guys, new member here! I am an undergrad engineering student and I am currently working on a project for a course that requires designing a ballast system for a manned submersible and I was wondering... Are there regulatory bodies in Canada that you know of that is responsible for...
  16. S

    Schools What are the best universities for Quantum Physics in Canada

    I would love to know about not only the rankings of the universities (Which I see a lot) but more what makes each one special. Which means I appreciate personal experience related to the courses as well as for example if there is any research done (or a way to get some hands-on experience in the...
  17. A

    Best Astrophysics Masters Programs in Canada: Recommendations and Opinions

    Hi to whoever reads this, Some back ground info: I am a current undergrad student halfway through their degree, and I'm starting to think about what I'd like to do after I receive my diploma. I know I want to continue studying, and possibly move to a different country to do that. I know I can...
  18. AryaKimiaghalam

    Physics Physics job prospects in Canada

    Hi, I'm starting my undergrad studies in math and physics this fall. I wanted to know what subfield of physics gives the best job opportunity to a Ph.D. graduate? I want to work in a field that I studied in. Not like particle physicists working in financial maths. Which field uses intense...
  19. M

    35 year old undergrad student....

    Hi everyone! I'm Mitch, I'm a 35 years old, from the east coast of Canada. I am looking to return to university this coming year to pursue a degree in physics! I have a concentration in Biology from Dalhousie University that I finished in 2003. I went there straight out of high school, no one...
  20. P

    How Can I Pursue a Master's Degree in Physics with a 3.0 GPA in Canada?

    Hello, thank you for your time in reading this. I graduated in 2016 with a 3.0ish GPA in Physics and Math in Ontario. I have no research experience because I felt my GPA disqualified me from the right to approach professors for those positions. However, now that I have graduated and given both...
  21. G

    Other How can I finance my son's MS in network security in Canada?

    Hi friends! My son is an Electronics and communication degree holder from India .He is keen to join MS in network security in Canada. One of our concern is Financial.Please guide . Thanks!
  22. B

    Engineering How hard is it to get a traineeship abroad (e.g. US)?

    I need someone to bring me back to reality because I may have disillusioned myself. I thought that it should not be too difficult to get a temporal job, graduate programme etc. applying from Europe. Yet I have so much trouble finding ads with visa sponsorship. I also start to think that my...
  23. C

    News Current Events in US/UK = Academic Boon for Canada?

    The CBC is reporting a drastic rise in international student applications to Canadian universities. University of Toronto applications, for example, are up by over 80%. Many are speculating that this is due to uncertainty generated by the recent actions of the new American president and...
  24. cnh1995

    Did the Hunter's Moon Really Look Like a Second Sun in North America?

    My facebook timeline was showing a news which said "North America and Canada witnessed two Suns in the sky". (I know fb is not a reliable source for such information).Because of the change in orbits, the moon rises and the Sun sets at the same time and the moon reflects the sunlight so bright...
  25. DaveC426913

    Question re: Employment/HR workplace conduct policy (Canada)

    I'm not sure where to turn for this. A thing has come up at my place of employment, to which I object. It has to do with employee conduct and (verbal) abuse. It is not a simple matter, such as would be spelled out if I merely read the employment laws or labour act. I do not wish to have the...
  26. V

    Computer Sales in Canada: 1985-1995, 1.5M Reached

    Homework Statement Between 1985 and 1995 the number of computers in thousands sold in Canada is estimated by c(t) = 0.92(t^3 + 8t^2 + 40t +400) In what year did home computers sale reach 1.5 million? Homework EquationsThe Attempt at a Solution I know I have to isolate the t to obtain time. So...
  27. S

    Engineering Quality Engineering or NDT Technician

    I'm in a dilemma right now. I've a mechanical engineering degree, and I wanted to supplement it with something before I join the work force, so I applied to two programs, Quality engineering post grad diploma, and a Non-Destructive testing technician diploma. Which one do you think has better...
  28. 256bits

    Hundreds of Americans wash up illegally in Canada

    We will catch you and send you back:biggrin: http://www.msn.com/en-ca/news/world/hundreds-of-americans-wash-up-illegally-in-canada-after-river-party/ar-BBvW5AA?li=AAggFp5&ocid=ansmsnnews11
  29. M

    Schools Which university in Canada is best for mining engineering?

    Hi. I am wondering which university in Canada is best for mining engineering. Waiting for your replies!
  30. Liam C

    Admissions What are the chances of getting into an Ivy School from CA

    I live in Canada but I want to go to a university in the US after I graduate HS. Does anyone have any experience similar to this? What are my chances of getting into an Ivy league school compared to those who already live in the U.S? Any data, statistics, personal or secondhand experience...
  31. F

    Physics Med Physics: Moving from Australia to Canada

    Greetings fellow geniuses. As you may be aware from the title this thread is in regards to a career in Med. Physics. So I have lived in Canada for a decade and then moved down under. Now I have intentions of moving back to the cold weather :P. Anyhow I have an interest in a career in Med...
  32. K

    Job Skills Medical physics in Canada: ABR accepted?

    Hello, I'm a Canadian who will be doing a medical physics residency in the U.S., and my goal is to work in the clinic. There's potential to be hired in the U.S. after completion of the residency program, so I will be going for ABR certification. One day, I would like to return to work in...
  33. S

    Schools Canada: Physics/Math Undergrad: McMaster vs Queen's vs U.Western

    I am finishing grade 12 and want to pursue a career in physics/mathematics. I applied to, and was accepted into said programs at McMaster, Queen's, and University of Western Ontario. I was wondering whether anyone had a specific advantage over another? (Undergrad)
  34. Cyril St-Amand

    Dismantlement of Nuclear Power Plant (Canada)

    Hi everyone this is my first time posting here, First of all, excuse my english because here in Mtl we speak French mostly. My team and I are working on an university project in Montreal (Qc) Canada (Polytechnique) regarding the recycling of radioactive material waste. We are working on the...
  35. N

    EE Grad studies - Canada with low gpa

    Hello everyone, I need your advice here. I am in my last term in EE in a fairly reputable school in Canada (or so they say). Due to a variety of factors, my gpa is pretty embarrassing (I am looking forward to graduate with a 2.6x gpa) I understand this is well below the 3.0 line for grad...
  36. A

    Schools Schools in Canada for HEP theory

    I am looking to apply to some schools in Canada for the M.Sc. program in HEP theory as a safety option. I have already applied to UBC, McGill and Waterloo (none of which I consider safeties, btw). What do you think about Simon Fraser and U of Saskatchewan? Are their departments good in general...
  37. J

    What's physics in Canada like?

    Any Canadian physicists on here? I'm taking engineering (1st year), but next year I want to switch to physics. I realize that a job in academia is pretty unrealistic given the amount of competition, but if I were to get a Ph.D. in physics, are the job prospects for physics decent in Canada? My...
  38. T

    Can I find job opportunities in Canada through online applications?

    I planned to work on Canada and I applied a job online and browse different sites to find a job. But after a long wait, I haven't got acall from any employers. May I know if there are some ways for me to apply in Canada?
  39. O

    Medical Physics CAMPEP graduate programs in Canada

    I'm currently in 3rd year of Medical Physics and hoping to work in the hospital as Medical Physicist. After going through the forum, it seems like the field is saturated and the PhD in accredited program is basically required to get into the residency program. Does it matter which graduate...
  40. P

    PGRE is a must for international students for Canada?

    I've recently completed a four year honours undergraduate degree (Mphys-astrophysics) at university of Hertfordshire, UK with 2:1 classification. And I'm planning to apply for MSc/PHD in HEP at a Canadian university. I was wondering if Canadian universities are 'too strict' on PGRE scores...
  41. J

    Universities in Canada, I can't decide

    I have been trying to decide between these two universities for the longest time, and I have to make a decision quick. I know I like physics and I love learning about it, it's just something I've always wanted to do. But after talking to many people, everyone is telling me to give engineering a...
  42. cpscdave

    [Canada] Electric Equipment requirements

    Does anyone know, or know where I go could to find more information. Are we allowed to bring in and use equipment (computer& computer related) that isn't CSA approved if the equipment has CE and/or FCC certifications? I can't seem to dig up information on specifically if this is kosher or...
  43. T

    GPA Requirements, Masters Biophysics Canada

    Greetings all, I'm planning on graduating next year from a good school in biophysics with an OK gpa expected in the range of 3.2-3.3. Not stellar, but this meets the minimum requirements for some masters programs here (Canada) and across the border. I've read that realistically, applicants...
  44. Meron

    Scholarship to Canada for Class 12 CBSE Student - Physics

    I'm a class 12 student in a CBSE school. I'm interested in pursuing a bachelor's in physics in Canada. I'm not very rich, and I can't afford the fees for the course. Can someone provide me with information regarding application and eligibility to get a scholarship to Canada?
  45. C

    [Canada] 30 year old going back to school - need advice

    I am doing a bit if a career shift and am looking to study physics at university. My initial feeling is astrophysics or theoretical physics. I am also planning to take this to Phd if I can. I am presently working on the high school pre-requisites that I need but I've encountered a bit of a...
  46. Luis MG

    Schools Canada Universities - Nonlinear Optics -

    Dear forum colleagues, I'm looking for universities which have a good research lab in the field of nonlinear optics, located in Canada. Can you please give me some hints or contacts? PS: If anyone need information about Brazil and Portugal, please don't hesitate and just ask! ;) Luis
  47. D

    Can You Find the Real Solutions to This Radical Equation?

    Homework Statement Find all real numbers x = \sqrt[2]{x-1/x} + \sqrt[2]{1-1/x} * Note that \sqrt[2]{x-1/x} is different from \sqrt[2]{1-1/x} Homework Equations Algebric equations The Attempt at a Solution Squaring the equation will not really work, so I tried to substitute x for y =...
  48. A

    Schools Grad schools in US and Canada

    I am currently studying Physics BS in UK, I just finished my third year and planning to apply for Ms/PhD programs in USA or Canada. I think all that is relevant about me when applying: I work hard at school, have mostly A's and likely to graduate with 1'st class degree, I think I'm somewhere...
  49. D

    Exploring First-Year Engineering GPA Comparisons in Canada

    I am a first year engineering student and was wondering what average GPA's are compared to other universities. I attend a university in Canada which uses a percent based system and the college of engineering sets the average first year at a low 60%.
  50. M

    What are the admission requirements for studying medical physics in Canada?

    Hey everyone, I'm a really confused undergrad willing to do anything it become a medical physicist in Canada.. But there are many questions I have in my head and I'm really hoping to get them answered! Thanks a lot in advance I'm currently a Radiation Therapy undergrad student. I understand...