# What is Free energy: Definition and 302 Discussions

The thermodynamic free energy is a concept useful in the thermodynamics of chemical or thermal processes in engineering and science. The change in the free energy is the maximum amount of work that a thermodynamic system can perform in a process at constant temperature, and its sign indicates whether a process is thermodynamically favorable or forbidden. Since free energy usually contains potential energy, it is not absolute but depends on the choice of a zero point. Therefore, only relative free energy values, or changes in free energy, are physically meaningful.
The free energy is a thermodynamic state function, like the internal energy, enthalpy, and entropy.

View More On Wikipedia.org
1. ### A Symmetry breaking in the AdS small/large black hole phase transition

I am trying to reproduce the results from this paper where they find out the expression for the Landau functional to be $$\psi(x,t,p)=\frac{1}{4}(\frac{1}{x}+6x+px^3-4tx^2)$$ We plot the Landau functional v/s the order parameter($x$) at $p=0.5$ and obtain the Figure 4. from the paper as Now...
2. ### Thermodynamics Question Regarding Gibbs Free Energy, Enthalpy, Entropy

Hello, is someone able to explain why these two are wrong. I am not sure how to figure out the enthalpy direction as the reaction is not changing state of matter, nor is it changing temperature. (Please solve without calculating anything) Thank you
3. ### I Rewriting of Gibbs Free Energy in Peksin (Equations 13.35/13.36)

Hey all, On page 446 in Peskin, he provides 2 different ways of writing the Gibbs Free Energy: $$\textbf{G}(M,t) = M^{1+\delta}h(tM^{-1/\beta})$$, and $$\textbf{G}(M,t) = t^{\beta(1+\delta)}f(Mt^{-\beta})$$ where ##h## and ##f## are some initial condition functions that have a smooth limit as...
4. ### Understand Gibbs Free Energy & Activation Energy

Hi everybody, I don't understand what changes between these two graphs. In particular, why does free energy reach a minimum in one graph and a maximum in the other? Shouldn't a chemical reaction always have an energy maximum, represented by the activation energy?
5. ### Chemistry Confusion in relation of Gibbs free energy and equilibrium constant

SO2(g)+1/2O2(g)⇌SO3(g);ΔHo=-98.32KJ/mole,ΔSo=-95J/(mole-K). find Kp at 298 Kelvin? In given question at first Δ G will be calculated using formula ΔG = Δ H – T x ΔS, by putting the given values in formula we get ΔG = -70.01 kJ/mol. Then Keq will be calculated using equation = Δ G = -RT ln Keq...
6. ### I What actually is the free energy? Why is it useful?

What is the free energy and why is it so important? I realize there's different types but what is the underlying concept? Is a general principle of CM systems to attempt to minimise free energy?
7. ### B Can a Planet Made of Glass Generate Free Energy?

As far as I know, if vacuum antigravitates, it makes the light that travels through it redshift, e.g. in a very large empty box with mirror walls, light will just lose energy. I am interested in the reverse effect, if we had a very large box or planet with mirror walls, that is filled with...
8. ### I Effect of attractive interactions on Gibbs free energy

Will the presence of attractive interactions between gas molecules raise or lower the molar Gibbs energy of a gas relative to its ‘perfect’ value? I would think that these attracting forces result in a lower energy state. A decrease in the energy state implies a decrease in the enthalpy. A...
9. ### Expressions for energy & entropy from free energy (discrete distribution)

So just by by using the definition of the partition function... $$Z = \sum_i e^{ \frac {-E_i} {k_BT} } = e^{ \frac {-0} {k_BT} } + e^{ \frac {-\epsilon} {k_BT} } = 1 + e^{ \frac {-\epsilon} {k_BT} }$$ And then, a result we obtained in class by using the Boltzmann H factor to solve for ##S##...
10. ### Gibbs free energy for superconductor in intermediate state

hi guys I am trying to derive the Gibbs free energy for a superconductor in the intermediate state , the book(Introduction to Superconductivity by A.C. Rose-Innes) just stated the equation as its : $$G(Ha) = Vgs(0)+\frac{V\mu_{o}H_{c}}{2n}[H_{a}(2-\frac{H_{a}}{H_{c}})-H_{c}(1-n))]$$ I am not...
11. ### Thermodynamic meaning of molar Gibbs free energy

I know that when it is ΔG>0 , it means there is no spontaneity, when ΔG=0 there is equilibrium, and when ΔG<0, there is spontaneity. But what happens when this is in the context of partial molar properties, when G is molar? I suppose molar ΔG is referred to a solution. Right? In that case, is...
12. ### Helmholtz free energy for mixing?

Hi, I have been reading a few literature regarding excess Helmholtz energy and I encountered this definition from the paper of Wong and Sandler (apparently, from the mixing rule used in a EOS): In particular, the ones in the red boxes. How did these equations come into being? I tried to look...
13. ### Change in Free Energy when Heating a Substance

Hello everyone! I'm new to the forum, and I've been trying to solve a problem that seems farily but I can't still convince myself of having the right (or wrong) answer. Imagine you warm up one mol of for example potassium hydride from standard temperature 298.15K to 673.15K (400 deg C). It is...
14. ### Chemistry MCQ- What is the Gibbs free energy value?

Where have I gone wrong? According to the key, the right option is a.
15. ### I Minimization of free energy in Landau theory

Thanks in advance for any insight! Following Pathria's discussion of phase transitions, I'm getting tripped up on the discussion of Landau's theory. Pathria begins with a zero-field free energy ##\psi = A/NkT## where ##A## is the Helmholtz free energy. He proceeds to characterize the...
16. ### Entropy and the Helmholtz Free Energy of a Mass-Piston System

Attempt at a Solution: Heat Absorbed By The System By the first law of thermodynamics, dU = dQ + dW The system is of fixed volume and therefore mechanically isolated. dW = 0 Therefore dQ = dU The change of energy of the system equals the change of energy of the gas plus the change of energy...
17. ### I Why must the Gibbs Free Energy be proportional to N?

In the textbook Thermal Physics by Daniel Schroeder he says the following: However, I don't follow this argument. Let's say that G was the following: $$G(T, P, N) = (TPN)^{1/3}$$ Then $$G(\lambda T, \lambda P, \lambda N) = \lambda G$$ So $$G$$ is extensive, but $$G \not \propto N.$$
18. ### Gibbs free energy problem

Summary: Please help me with this problem ,I can't do it The normal boiling point of liquid bromine is 58.2°C. At 9.3°C the equilibrium vapor pressure of liquid bromine is 100 torr. From this data, calculate the standard state Gibbs energy of formation of bromine vapor at room temperature...
19. ### Chemistry Create a Gibbs Free Energy challenge question

I was thinking about giving the bond energy to calculate the enthalpy change of some exothermic and spontaneous reaction. Than using that exothermic enthalpy to heat the own products and reagents. That would change the Gibbs free energy of the equation (as the elements will be in a different...
20. ### Confusion about the use of partial molar Gibbs free energy

If this belongs in classical physics, please move it there. But it seems like the kind of question chemistry people would know so I'm putting it here. I was reading a textbook on chemical thermodynamics, and it says to raise the partial molar Gibbs free energy of n moles a substance from...
21. ### Gibbs Free Energy Equation: why is the entropy change of the system not q/T ?

What is the entropy change of the system in the Gibbs Free Energy Equation? The general expression for entropy change is ΔS=q/T The only exchange between the system and the surroundings is ΔH done reversibly, with no PV work and no matter transfer, therefore q(syst) = ΔH(syst) therefore surely...
22. ### Standard Gibbs free energy equal to zero?

At equilibrium, we know that deltaG = 0. But what about deltaG_zero, i.e. the standard Gibbs free energy? When is deltaG_zero = 0? In the solution manual it says that it means that K = 1, but by calculating an equilibrium constant you are already stating that we are at equilibrium? I.e. that...
23. ### Why is DeltaG Negative for H2O(l) to H2O(g) at Equilibrium?

Calculate deltaG for the reaction: H2O(l) = H2O(g). 100 degrees celsius, water is clean. P(H2O) = 0.1 bar. Given that it is an equilibrium, I'd think that deltaG would be zero. But the answer is in fact negative. How is that possible?
24. ### B Traffic Turbines - Free Energy or Cost Exchange?

I saw a video on FaceBook today that showed traffic turbines. They supposedly generate "free" energy from the traffic that passes by them causing them to spin. Just because I'm curious, I was wondering if this energy isn't really free, but is in exchange of a minuscule drag put on the passing...
25. ### I How Does Helmholtz Free Energy Change During Constant Temperature and Volume?

This is really basic,and I’m not seeing something obvious,but I’d appreciate help with this concept. In differential form dA= -tds-pdv. However s and v are the natural variables for this free energy and are held constant . As I understand it the Helmholtz free energy is the energy available to...
26. ### Question about Gibbs free energy from Kubos' Thermodynamics

Advanced Problems textbook. (It's on pages 212-213). I'll post the question and following it the solution in the book: The question: The Solution: What I don't understand is how did they arrive at the identities with ##\frac{\bar{G}_1''-\bar{G}_1'}{0}## and...
27. ### I Why is the 'TS term' included in the expression for Gibbs free energy?

Hello. I'd like to ask a question about meaning of Gibbs free energy. In undergraduate school, I learned that Gibbs free energy is "available" energy we can extract from system at constant pressure and temperature. G=H-TS=U+PV-TS In above expression, however, I can't understand why "TS term" is...
28. ### Free energy per unit volume of an ideal gas

Homework Statement Homework EquationsThe Attempt at a Solution [/B] I am taking the free energy as the internal energy of the ideal gas. Then the average internal energy per unit volume is ## \frac { 3 nk_B T } {2 } ##. So, the correct option is (c). Is this correct?
29. ### Free Energy of a Simple Quantum System

Homework Statement [/B]A quantum system has three energy levels, ##-0.12 ~\rm{eV}##, ##-0.20 ~\rm{eV}## and ##-0.44 ~\rm{eV}## respectively. Three electrons are distributed among these three levels. At a temperature of ##1727^o \rm{C}## the system has total energy ##-0.68 ~\rm{eV}##. What is...
30. ### Thermodynamics: Free Energy Confusion

Homework Statement Hi all, I'm having quite a big problem trying to understand the concept of enthalpy and free energy. I feel that a good way to sort this out is to write out what I understand about these things and have people correct me. Thanks in advance for any assistance. I'm learning...
31. T

47. ### Non-Linear optics vs The 2nd Law of Thermodynamics

Hi, rank newbie here, with my first post. This one is something I figure every first year student comes up with at some point, but I don't know enough keywords to Search for an answer. (I'm not a student except in the category "of life": this isn't assigned homework) I figger, using a bit of...
48. ### Change in Gibbs free energy at equillibrium

I understand that the change in Gibbs Free Energy at equillibrium is 0 and this leads to the equation -deltaH=TdeltaS. My questions here is that if a reaction is at equillibrium, how can there be any change in enthalpy or entropy at all? Why wouldn't these terms be 0?
49. ### Trouble with Gibbs Free Energy & Equilibrium Constant Calc.

Hello. A known equation that is useful for calculating equilbrium constants is: ΔG° = -RT * ln(K) This is all well and good. Given a standard gibbs free energy of reaction for some given reaction, the equilibrium constant for the reaction can be found. My trouble is in which ΔG° to use. For...
50. ### La Chatlier & Gibbs Free Energy Contradiction?

Say I have an exothermic reaction, whose change in Entropy is positive. (not the most common of reactions, but it can still happen) If I increase the temperature, by La Chatlier's principle, the reaction should move to the left. However, by Gibbs free energy, if I increase the temperature, the...