# What is per unit: Definition and 105 Discussions

A product's average price is the result of dividing the product's total sales revenue by the total units sold. When one product is sold in variants, such as bottle sizes, managers must define "comparable" units. Average prices can be calculated by weighting different unit selling prices by the percentage of unit sales (mix) for each product variant. If we use a standard, rather than an actual mix of sizes and product varieties, the result is price per statistical unit. Statistical units are also called equivalent units.
Average price per unit and prices per statistical unit are needed by marketers who sell the same product in different packages, sizes, forms, or configurations at a variety of different prices. As in analyses of different channels, these product and price variations must be reflected accurately in overall average prices. If they are not, marketers may lose sight of what is happening to prices and why. If the price of each product variant remained unchanged, for example, but there was a shift in the mix of volume sold, then the average price per unit would change, but the price per statistical unit would not. Both of these metrics have value in identifying market movements. In a survey of nearly 200 senior marketing managers, 51 percent responded that they found the "average price per unit" metric very useful in managing and monitoring their businesses, while only 16% found "price per statistical unit" very useful.In retail, unit price is the price for a single unit of measure of a product sold in more or less than the single unit.
The "unit price" tells you the cost per pound, quart, or other unit of weight or volume of a food package. It is usually posted on the shelf below the food. The shelf tag shows the total price (item price) and price per unit (unit price) for the food item. Research suggests that unit price information in supermarkets can lead shoppers to save around 17-18% when they are educated on how to use it, but that this figure drops off over time.Unit price is also a valuation method for buyers who purchase in bulk. Buyer seeks to purchase 10000 widgets. Seller One offers 1000 widgets packaged together for $5000. Seller Two offers 5000 widgets packaged together for$25000. Seller Three offers 500 widgets packaged together for $2000. All three sellers can offer a total of 10000 widgets to Buyer. Seller One offers widgets at a unit price of$5. Seller Two offers widgets at a unit price of $5. Seller Three offers widgets at a unit price of$4. Buyer uses unit price to value the packages offered by each of the three sellers and finds that Seller Three offers widgets at the best value, the best price.
Unit price is a common form of valuation in sales contract for goods sold in bulk purchasing.
The stock price of securities is a form of unit price because securities including capital stocks are often sold in bulks comprising many units.Unit price also is often used in the trade of consumable energy resources.

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1. ### Three Phase Per Unit System - Mark up, represent as single phase equiv

I'm seeking some reassurance I've understood the question since there are no answers given in the book and I'm getting a bit tied up in knots. What I am struggling with most is there are three per unit values for impedance already noted on the diagram without qualifying what ##Z{base}## is or...
2. ### Calculating Discharge Rate of Fluid in Circular Area

This is actually right at the start of another derivation, but I can't understand how the author gets the formula for ##q##. So the discharge per unit thickness is the circumference of the circle, multiplied by the velocity at that point (at ##r##)? I thought the formula for flow rate was...
3. ### I Converting "Luminosity per unit wavelength" to "Luminosity per unit frequency"

If there is a luminosity per unit wavelength defined as L_λ dλ, am I correct in thinking that the conversion to luminosity per unit frequency (L_ν) would be L_ν = L_λ (λ^2/c)? And building off of that, if the shape of a spectrum was proportional to a power-law: L_λ = λ^(β), is there a way to...
4. ### Finding the magnitude of the hydrostatic force per unit of circumference

Hello all I am trying to find the hydrostatic force of a cylindrical tank of water. I was hoping someone could help point me in the right direction. I have a cylindrical water tank. The dimensions are as follows:- I need to find the magnitude of the hydro static force per unit of...
5. ### Find the force acting per unit width on the vertical wall

A container of height 3m and width 5m is filled with water upto 2 m. It is accelerated such that the water is at the brim (it is about to spill). When it moves with this acceleration find the force acting per unit width on the vertical wall. I found the acceleration for the condition provided...
6. ### A Photons per unit of Energy in Cherenkov radiation?

If I have a beam of protons that go into a block of water, how can I know how many photons will be produced along the beam path?. I'm assuming all the photons have the same energy. I know that the energy deposition will follow a Bragg Curve, and I think that energy deposition is probably...
7. ### The relationship between percent and per unit impedance

Homework Statement For one of my assignments I’ve been ask about the relationship between percent impedance and per unit impedance. Homework EquationsThe Attempt at a Solution I know that the x% is determined in transformers by short circuiting the secondary windings and slowly increasing the...
8. ### MCNPX - How calculate Kerma (kinetic energy released per unit mass) in Air?

Hi, my name is alexander, i am student from Institute of radioprotection and dosimetry (IRD). My project is calculate MGD (mean glandular dose) from womans with augmented breast. i am having dificulties to calculate Kerma in air with mcnpx. I drew a block of air above the breast, i am using the...
9. ### Work done per unit charge by electric field on charge

Homework Statement Homework EquationsThe Attempt at a Solution I know the units for V is J/C so #3 and #4 are wrong. But how do I determine the signs?
10. ### Free energy per unit volume of an ideal gas

Homework Statement Homework EquationsThe Attempt at a Solution [/B] I am taking the free energy as the internal energy of the ideal gas. Then the average internal energy per unit volume is ## \frac { 3 nk_B T } {2 } ##. So, the correct option is (c). Is this correct?
11. T

### Boussinesq theory (load per unit area)

in question 10.19 , i use equation 10.26 to do the question . I have all the values of all variables , except q ( load per unit area) ... Homework EquationsThe Attempt at a Solution How to get q ? It's not stated in the textbook . Is there something to do with the homework =4m ?? I assume q =...
12. ### Correct option for n dependence of free energy f per unit

Homework Statement The equation of state of an ideal gas is p = nkT, where p is the thermodynamic pressure and n = N / V is the thermodynamic variable for the number of particles per unit volume. The n dependence of the free energy f per unit volume of the ideal gas is obtained by the following...
13. ### Sound & Music - Mass per unit length

Homework Statement Suppose a harp string is tuned to middle C (C4) and is 0.56m long. If I want the tension to be 193.5 N, what mass per unit length do I need the harp string to be? Calculate your answer in kg.m Homework Equations Vs = sqrt(T/μ) V = fλ The Attempt at a Solution Having a very...
14. ### Force per unit length acting on four parallel wires

Homework Statement An arrangement of four wires, in cross section, with θ=30° and u=5cm. Wire 2 and wire 4 carry the same magnitude of current (I2=I4=10mA) directed out of the page. Wire 3 carries current I3=25mA directed into the page. If the resultant force per unit length on wire 1 is zero...
15. ### Inductance per unit length of coaxial transmission line

1. Homework Statement An air coaxial transmission line has a solid inner conductor of radius a and a very thin outer conductor of inner radius b. Determine the inductance per unit length of the line. Homework Equations the book states the methodology to find the inductance as follows: 1)...
16. ### Energy per unit length of a cylindrical shell of charge

Homework Statement "An infnitely long hollow cylinder of radius ##a## has surface charge density ##σ_a##. It is surrounded by a coaxial hollow cylinder of radius ##b## with charge density ##σ_b##. The charge densities are such that the total confguration is electrically neutral. Using whatever...
17. ### Find mass per unit length of a string graphically

Homework Statement frequency, Tension, mass, mode of vibration Homework Equations v = sqrt(T/μ) The Attempt at a Solution length of string is 2.14m weight .00247kg mass per unit length (μ) .00089 However, I need to confirm this graphically. I solved for mass per unit length μ = T/V^2 or...
18. ### Derive energy density proportional to emitted power per unit area

The following derives the relation that for a blackbody radiation the energy density is proportional to the energy emitted per unit area over unit time. The average energy density ##d\psi## is obtained by dividing the radiant energy ##dE## received by the surface ##dB## in 1 second by the...
19. ### 3 phase power systems: per unit with transformers

Hey, I'm currently working a problem that looks like this: There's more to this problem, but I'm sure I can solve the rest of it, there are just things I'm uncertain about. Actually, it's only one thing I'm uncertain about. I'm looking through my notes, and when converting the voltage...
20. ### Formula of energy per unit weight

Homework Statement is the equation in the 3rd photo wrong ? since there are 2 exits , why shouldn't the eqaution become (P1 / y) + z + (8.33^2) / (2x9.81) = 0 + z +[ 2 (12^2) / (2x9.81) ] ? Homework EquationsThe Attempt at a Solution
21. ### Understanding Energy per Unit Weight: Solving the Equation for Height

Homework Statement why the author said the equation 3-4 as energy per unit weight ? as gamma = rho g , gamma has the unit of kg(m^-3)(ms^-2) = kg(m^-2)(s^-2) , gamma is clearly not weight ... Homework EquationsThe Attempt at a Solution
22. ### Understanding VBase and ZBase: The Relationship Between IActual and IBase

If you took: VBase / ZBase does that give you IActual or IBase or what? Because it seemed to give me IActual. Cheers
23. ### No mass for mass per unit length

Homework Statement A ski gondola is connected to the top of a hill by a steel cable of length L and radius R . As the gondola comes to the end of its run, it bumps into the terminal and sends a wave pulse along the cable. It is observed that it took T seconds for the pulse to return. What is...
24. ### Calculating load per unit length

I am having the hardest time calculating q, the load per unit length. This question is in relation to my previous question I posted here. I have a cylinder laying horizontally that is fixed on its ends. The cylinder is filled with water. To calculate the deflection I am simplifying the problem...
25. ### Energy per unit time of a wave

Homework Statement Is intensity related to this question? The answer is B. Homework Equations I^2 ∝ A^2 I=P/A, where I is intensity, P is power, and A is area The Attempt at a Solution I tried using I=P/A, and after substituting, I get, A^2=E/S, which gives E=A^2 S And then, the new wave...
26. ### Capacitance per unit length - two cylindrical conductors

Homework Statement Two cylindrical conductors, of distance between them d and radius a (a<<d), have dielectric layer of relative permitivitty εr and thickness a. Calculate capacitance per unit length of this system. Homework Equations Capacitance per unit length, C'=Q'/U Gauss law, cylindrical...
27. ### Calculating Per Unit Fault Impedance: Finding Errors in Given Relationships

Homework Statement Given the relationships: Xpu = MVAbase / MVAfault Xpu = ( MVAbase / MVArated ) * ( X% / 100 ) MVAfault = sqrt(3) * V * Ifault Xohms = [ V / sqrt(3) ] * Ifault Homework Equations Show that: Xpu = [ MVAbase / V^2 ] * Xohms The Attempt at a Solution No matter how I...
28. ### Pressure drop per unit length of the pipe

MODERATOR NOTE: THERE IS NO TEMPLATE BECAUSE THIS THREAD WAS ORIGINALLY MISPLACED IN A NON-HOMEWORK FORUM Viscous liquid (ρ = 1460 kg/m3, μ = 5.2×10−1Ns/m2) is pumped through a smooth pipe with a 0.1 m diameter, at a rate of 5×10−2m3/s. Using your Fanning friction factor versus Reynolds Number...
29. M

### Charge per unit length for a charged ring

Homework Statement If you have a ring of charge, is it valid to say lambda = Q/L, or is it lambda = dQ/dL? Homework EquationsThe Attempt at a Solution
30. ### Power system analysis, per unit system help

Homework Statement https://dl.dropboxusercontent.com/u/88040310/powerhw3.png 1. Draw the reactance diagram. 2. Calculate the per unit impedances 3. If bms #1 is operating at 30 kV, find the current Assume base of 100 MVA, 300 kV on the generator side. Homework Equations P = VI s = p +jq...
31. ### Thermal energy intensity per unit volume

I am trying to figure out what the total thermal energy emitted by completely transparent matter. It seems Planck's law can't do this because the thickness or geometry of the mass is not given, only it's surface area. The spectral radiance of a black body is given by Planck's law...
32. ### How do I calculate the number of collisions per unit area in an ideal gas?

I an ideal gas how do I calculate the number of collision per unit area? By collision I do not mean collision between the atoms but rather it is a problem where I know that a nucleation cluster of area A is in my gas, and I want to find the probability that it will get hit by an atom. I know the...
33. ### Work Done per Unit Charge vs Current

A trivial question. I know that current is the amount of charge passing per unit time across a area. And Potential difference is change in potential or change in potential energy per unit charge or work done per unit charge. And also from Ohms law, V is directly proportional to I. So...
34. ### Wavelength for highest radiation per unit wavelength

Homework Statement At what wavelength does a cavity at 6000 degrees Kelvin radiate most per unit wavelength? Homework Equations $$\rho_T(\lambda)d\lambda=\frac{8\pi{hc}}{\lambda^5}\frac{d\lambda}{e^{{hc}/{\lambda{kT}}}-1}$$ The Attempt at a Solution I'm pretty new to this whole...
35. ### Series Resistance per unit length of an infinite tranmission line?

Homework Statement We are to assume an infinite transmission line with the following parameters: capacitance: 296 ρF/ft Zc=52Ω inductance: 8.0 × 10-7 H/ft We are told that a 100MHz signal is attenuated 31 dB per 100 feet and asked based on the information, assuming no leakage through...
36. ### Charge Volume Density To Charge Per Unit Length

Homework Statement http://imgur.com/VzZjSEH I took a screen shot so I did not leave anything out. Homework Equations Surface area, and volume of a sphere. The Attempt at a Solution I am trying to find the linear charge density from the charge volume density. I got it explained...
37. ### Potential energy per unit length in a string (sin wave)

Homework Statement Given that the stretched length of a string is Δx(1+1/2(dy/dx)^2) show that the potential energy per unit length is equal to 1/2F(dy(x,t)/dx)^2 Homework Equations potential energy = kx^2 cos(kx-wt) idk really... The Attempt at a Solution The fact that the...
38. ### Momentum per unit area per unit time in EM

Homework Statement In fact it is problem 8.5 in Griffiths 3rd ed p357 Consider an infinite parallel plate capacitor with the lower plate carrying the charger density - \sigma , and the upper plate carrying the charge density + \sigma . (a) Determine all nine elements of the stress...
39. ### Magnetic force per unit charge and work done on a proton

Homework Statement a proton moves with a velocity <6*105,3*105> m/s through a magnetic field given by <.2,.2> T a. Find the magnetic force per unit charge on the proton b. Find the work done by this forceHomework Equations Fm=qv x BThe Attempt at a Solution For part a, I used a property of...
40. ### Photons per Unit Volume (Quantum)

Homework Statement \rho(\lambda)d\lambda=\frac{8(\pi)hc}{\lambda^{5}}\frac{d\lambda}{e^{hc/(\lambda)KT}-1} What does this represent? Calculate the number of photons per unit volume in a blackbody from \lambda to d\lambda Homework Equations N/A The Attempt at a Solution I...
41. ### Mass of disk given mass per unit

Homework Statement I need to find the mass of a disk with a hole, given inner and outer diameters of 0.10m and 0.30m, respectively. The disk has a mass per unit of 20 \frac{kg}{m^2}. The Attempt at a Solution Since I needed mass units, I thought that I could multiply the mass per unit...
42. ### How much energy per unit mass is needed

Homework Statement How much energy per unit mass (E/m) must you give a rocket to put it into a geosynchronous orbit three Earth radii above the surface of the Earth? Radius of Earth : 6380 km GM/r = 6.25 x 10^7 m^2/ s^2 Homework Equations U(r) = - GMm/r The Attempt at a...
43. ### Engineering Calculate 3ph short circuit symmetrical fault, per unit method.

Homework Statement Calculate the three-phase short-circuit fault currents flowing into all five busbars. Homework Equations MVA base = 150MVA All base voltages were set to the local busbar voltages. Formulas I have used can be seen in the attached photos. The Attempt at a...
44. ### Photon Flux per Unit Wavelength

Hi How do you get a photon flux per unit wavelength curve for solar radiation? My understanding of "per unit wavelength" is that the wavelengths within a very short range are fired at a detector. The range is then gradually changed to cover higher wavelengths. The values of flux measured by...
45. ### Calculating volume flow rate per unit width of a plate ( Fluid Mechanics )

This is the question The flow of a fluid between two large flat parallel plates normal to the y direction is fully developed and steady. The plates are a distance 2h apart in the y direction and the velocity profile, assuming y=0 is at the midpoint between the plate is V(y) = V_0(1-(y/h)^2)...
46. ### Find Max Potential Energy per Unit Length of Wire

Homework Statement A wire is fixed at both ends vibrating fundamentally. For what value of x (x position on the wire, with 0 being one edge and L being the other) is the potential energy per unit length has the maximum value? Known: Length of wire (L), Tension in wire (T), Mass of wire (m)...
47. ### Archived Estimate nuclear energy generation rate (formula given) per unit MASS MASS?

Homework Statement Consider energy generation in the Sun. Fusion through the pp cycle takes place within its core which has r = 0.2 Rs T = 1.3 x 10 ^ 7 K rho (density) = 1.1 x 10 ^ 5 kg m^-3 X (total mass fraction of hydrogen) = 0.34 The nuclear energy generation rate for the pp...
48. ### What is probability per unit time

I am reading Aschroft and Mermin and I came across the probability per unit time I have trouble understanding the concept as it is. But they do try to explain. They say that the probability that an electron will experience a collision in an ifinetismal time, dt, is just dt/τ. From this i...
49. ### MHB What is the Optimal Production Level for Minimizing Average Cost per Unit?

Average Cost. A manufacturer has determined that the total cost $C$ of operating a factory is $C=0.5x^2+15x+5000$ where $x$ is the number of units produced. At what level of production will the average cost per unit be minimized? (The average cost per unit is $\frac{C}{x}$) taking C' and...
50. ### How do you calculate cost per unit of electricity?

How do you calculate cost per unit of electricity over a certain time that a generator produces?