A sine wave or sinusoid is a mathematical curve that describes a smooth periodic oscillation. A sine wave is a continuous wave. It is named after the function sine, of which it is the graph. It occurs often in both pure and applied mathematics, as well as physics, engineering, signal processing and many other fields. Its most basic form as a function of time (t) is:
where:
A, amplitude, the peak deviation of the function from zero.
f, ordinary frequency, the number of oscillations (cycles) that occur each second of time.
ω = 2πf, angular frequency, the rate of change of the function argument in units of radians per second
φ
{\displaystyle \varphi }
, phase, specifies (in radians) where in its cycle the oscillation is at t = 0. When
φ
{\displaystyle \varphi }
is non-zero, the entire waveform appears to be shifted in time by the amount φ/ω seconds. A negative value represents a delay, and a positive value represents an advance.
The sine wave is important in physics because it retains its wave shape when added to another sine wave of the same frequency and arbitrary phase and magnitude. It is the only periodic waveform that has this property. This property leads to its importance in Fourier analysis and makes it acoustically unique.
Supposed your audio bandwidth is set to 20000Hz. And the signal is 10mV and there is spec of 2mV noise at 20000Hz bandwidth. Does it mean if a function generator would produce constant 10mV with different frequencies between 20Hz to 20000Hz. The noises in the sine waves of each would be similar...
I need an equation to graph a sine wave that act like a unit circle but only positive numbers.
so I need it to be 0 at 0, A at 90 , 0 at 180, A at 270, 0 at 360, and A at 450 and so on and so on...
Now I know sin(0) is 0 in degrees and sin(90) 1
and I know if you Square a number is...
Hi,
I have created a sine wave with the following options:
1.) - changing the period/length in days of the sine wave (Cycle Length in Days)
2.) - calculating the start value of the "dummy" so that the sine wave always starts with -1 (Dummy Start at Cycle Trough) when the phase shift is set...
Hey Everyone,
I am trying to gain a level of fundamental understanding of an RC circuit sine wave response through the mathematics and was wondering if someone could help me work it out.
Fundamentally a sine wave is represented by the equation y=-ky'' . When a sine wave is used as the input...
I built a guitar (fuzz) effect, and analysed the sine wave from a tone generator through an oscilloscope. Wondering what the wave means and how it got to be the way it is. I will attach a picture of the oscilloscope screen + the circuit I used for the Fuzz effect. My question is what the cause...
Hi
I would like to Derive the power spectrum of sinusoid.I tried like this. But It doesn't work.
<Moderator: CODE tags added>
#include <stdio.h>
#include <math.h>
#define pi 3.1415926535
FILE *in_file, *out_file;
int main()
{
dft();
}
int dft(int argc, char *argv[])
{
char...
I need to recursively generate a quadrature signal which fits exactly into a grid NxN, where N is a large power of two.
After unsuccessful research, I decided to develop my own solution, starting from the waveguide-form oscillator taken from Pete Symons' book 'Digital wave generation, p. 100'...
Howdy all.
The typical image of a three phase electrical system involves 3 sine waves, phase shifted 120 degrees. These sine waves each, individually, represent the 'phase voltage,' which is to a common neutral in a wye configuration. In this wye configuration the line to line voltage is...
How do I setup an integral to integrate over the following equation:
V(t) = 1/(R*C) integral to t Vin(t) dt
This is the capacitor voltage over time formula.
I want to integrate over a sine wave from 9 to 81 degrees. Frequency of 120Hz, amplitude of 120V.
The formula I used in wolframalpha is...
Homework Statement
An ac voltage, comprises of a fundamental voltage of 100 Vrms at a frequency of 120 Hz, a 3rd harmonic which is 20% of the fundamental, a
5th harmonic which is 10% of the fundamental and at a phase angle of
1.2 radians lagging.
(i) Write down an expression for the voltage...
i was desigining a simple ( simple as in no MPPT) PV-pump standalone system, and we decided on using an AC-pump, so while i was searching for inverters i noticed the remarkable difference in price ranges, so i started to read about the difference between the two, so far the disadvantages of the...
Dear all
Something is bugging me. I hope you can help.
I read in texts that if f(t) = sin(t) then the period of the function is the time taken (secs) to complete one cycle.
I also read in texts that if f(t) = sin(2t) then the period of the halved.
No problems here. I see that (2*t) = (omega*t)...
I'm new to electronics, and using my new equiptment I would like to generate a sine signal on my function generator and display it on my oscilloscope.
Equipment:
* The scope is Rigol DS1054Z
* Function generator is a $60 digital chinese.
My problem is:
When I plug connect the function...
Hi,
Simple question, sort of:
I see that according to the internet the mathematical description of a triangular wave is rather complex, so I'll try to stay as far away from that as I can, because I'm a bit rusty.
I understand that if you integrate a square wave you get a triangular wave on the...
So my question is, how does this work (hopefully I'm allowed to do hyperlinks):
https://www.desmos.com/calculator/zlvrts7mul
Given a table of x and y coordinates, how do I find the sin wave of best fit. I need to get f (frequency), a (amplitude), and p (phase) for the function in this form f(x)...
So I am just working with a synth and I am having it create a single sine wave. I am then looking at the output on a db vs frequency graph and I would expect the db to only be reading at the frequency of that sine wave, but there are readings from 20 Hz all the way to 2k Hz sometimes(althought...
Homework Statement
A sinusoidal transverse wave traveling on a string is described at t=2.0s by y(x)=0.1sin(4πx+(33π/40) and at x=1.0m by y(t)=0.1sin((17π/4)+4πt)
a. What is the wavelength and the amplitude?
b. What is the frequency (Hz) and direction of propagation?
c. What is the speed?
d...
Homework Statement
For an upcoming lab I've been asked to build a circuit to convert a square wave (vi(t))e into a sine wave (v0(t)) by selecting appropriate resistor/capacitor values for the circuit below (from what I know, it's impossible to produce an accurate sine wave with just this, I...
Homework Statement
The rms voltage for a sine wave with zero offset is given by Vrms= 1/(√2)Vpeak. Calculate the rms voltage for a sine wave with a peak-to-peak voltage of 1V.
Homework Equations
Vpeak-to-peak=2Vpeak
The Attempt at a Solution
This may be a really easy question with an answer...
So my question is about calculating wattage with a sine wave.
So with speakers I always just thought of it as the basic vi=w
So a sine wave of 12v through 4 ohms will produce three amps and thus 36watts.
But when you put a square wave and use pulse width modulation on something like an led or...
Hi!
I am searching for litterature on the decomposition of a sine wave in its three parameters: phase, frequency and amplitude. I just need it to justify an analysis that I am doing this way and it appears to be hard to find such a book. I find many website but nothing I can cite seriously!
Thanks!
Homework Statement
Derive the FT for a full-wave rectified sine wave, i.e., |sin(wt)|
Homework Equations
$$1/(√2π)\int_{a}^{b} |Sin[wt]| {e}^{-i w t}dt$$
The Attempt at a Solution
I'm not entirely sure how to start doing this problem. What I tried doing was noticing that both of these...
This is probably pretty basic but I've never actually seen an explanation of how exactly the sine wave relates to the physical waves it is so commonly used to represent. Could it be imagined as like the periodic thumping of a speaker where the peak of the sine graph represents maximum air...
Why do the sound waves reflect and form standing wave when they travel along a string with sinusoidal waveform?
But they do not reflect back when they are in square waveform ?
Homework Statement
What are the fundamental frequencies for a 50 kHz square waveform of 50% duty cycle and a 25 kHz sinusoidal waveform, respectively? (The duty cycle of a square waveform is the ratio between the pulse duration and the pulse period.)
Homework Equations
My teacher then gave...
Homework Statement
The suspension system of a car traveling on a bumpy road has a stiffness of ##k = 5\times 10^6## N/m and the effective mass of the car on the suspension is ##m = 750## kg. The road bumps can be considered to be periodic half sine waves with period ##\tau##. Determine the...
Imagine that you have a calibrated sine wave generator set at 900 Hz and you mix its signal with that of an uncalibrated generator also set at 900 Hz. You hear a beat frequency of 4 Hz.
What is the true frequency of the uncalibrated generator?
Is there more than one possibility?
I'm...
Hi can someone please clarify info regarding the application and validity of the Dickey Fuller test.
If I perform the test using a sine wave would I be required to somehow take into account the seasonality. From my understanding a sine wave is non stationary, using the MATLAB command below I...
Sorry if this sounds like a dumb question, but why is the effective value of a sine wave 0.707, as opposed to 0.637 which is the value generated by finding the definite integral over the domain [0,∏] divided length of the domain?
I have a range of sine waves I have obtained in an experiment.
I want to put a measure on the purity of these sine waves - how well the reproduce a theoretical sine wave.
Is there anyway I can analyse the FFT of the sine waves in Matlab and put a measure on the purity of the sine wave...
Hello all,
I'm new to electrical engineering, and I'm working on a project that requires a bit more than I'm familiar with. What I'm asking for help on boils down to this: I have a circuit that outputs a low power sine wave (frequency 25-40kHz) with an amplitude +/- 5V at a few watts. I want to...
I have been trying to implement this Wave equation into java:
A = amplitude of wave
L = wave length
w = spatial angular frequency
s = speed
wt = temporal angular frequency
d = direction
FI = initiatory phase
Y（x，y，t）=A*cos（w *（x，y）+ wt*t + FI;
I...
I know that normal DC can be inverted to square wave , modified sine wave or pure sine wave , what about half sine wave dc , like the one resulted from ac current passing through a simple diode rectifier, can this be inverted?
Is Sine Wave just a graph of particles that do SHM? A wave on a string is also a Sine wave provided its particles are moving sinusoidally. But its shape also kind of represents a sine wave.
So is the wave on a string called a sine wave because of the physical shape that we can see or because...
Hi!
This is a problem regarding a quarter car model driving over a sinusoidal road excitation.
A sinusoidal excitation can be written on the form ze^(jωt), z being vertical. I would like to write the longitudinal excitation of a sine wave on the same form?
Any hints and tips are much appreciated.
Homework Statement
Sketch Vo for the network shown (see attachment) and determine the dc voltage available.
Homework Equations
The Attempt at a Solution
Vi is a sine like wave with amplitude of 100 V and goes on for one period.
When Vi is positive, the diode on the right goes...
Homework Statement
Hello all! Basically, my professor used this graph in our lecture, but I do not really understand how to read it. The graph has three variables, so I'm guessing it is Voltage vs. Current as time increases? One question he asked was "The figure shows the voltage and...
Good evening,
I bought my self my first Inverter rated at 500W which has a peak rate of 1000W (1kW) maximum. Since some devices such as my main computer for one takes 600W, It does not like the modified sine wave. I was wondering if there is a way to somehow 'convert' the modified sine wave...
Hello everyone,
The sum of two sine waves that have close frequencies can produce an Envelope Wave:
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Envelope_(waves)
What formula can I use to turn it into one wave (i.e. one frequency and amplitude)?
Example pic attached:
The blue "Envelope Wave" is...
Just Thought this would be cool to share with yall
So say you have two functions, B(x) and A(x)
The equation \frac{b(x)+a(x) + (b(x)-a(x))sin(nx)}{2} Will give you a sin wave in between these two functions (I was playing around with this and finally figured out the equation a while ago). N...
Okay this has been bothering me, I know what the x-axis on sine graph mean, but not the y axis. I know when I type for example: sin(pi) I will get 1. But what is that 1? I know its the y cordnate. But what is it?
So I'm trying to get my head around RLC circuits and what is happening
say we have a 10 ohm resistor, 1000uf capacitor and a 10H inductor in a circuit powered by a 10 volt source.
Is the resulting oscillation of the sine wave frequency the result of the inductor resisting the flow of...
Hello guys,
From a layman's viewpoint when we count occurrences of different amplitude values, then frequency of zeros must be maximum is not it? but it is as below:
why so? zeoros must be maximum, 1s and -1s are lesser than 0 isn't it?
i don't know how i can use MATLAB to plot anti periodic fun ..
the origin site give this code for triangular fun:
fs = 10000;
t = -1:1/fs:1;
x1 = tripuls(t,20e-3);
plot(t,x1), xlabel('Time (sec)');ylabel('Amplitude'); title('Triangular Aperiodic Pulse')
but when i use this for sine...
I have the equation E(t)=7*sin(11000t+∏/3) and I measured the following:
E(.22ms) = .422V
Frequency = 1.751kHz
Period = 572.0 μs
Peak = 7V
Peak-Peak = 14V
E(rms) = 4.8V
E(average) = 105mV
I've calculated the following to compare
E(.22ms) = .422V
Frequecy = 1.75 kHz
Period...
Please forgive me, I don't really know how to properly ask my question, so I'll just do my best.
I want to learn how sound is processed. More specifically what math goes into figuring out what individual frequencies are within a single sound signal. Like if I had a recording of say 5 separate...
The line current in a 3-phase delta loaded circuit is supposedly equal to sqrt(3) times the phase current. That's dependent on all the signals being sine waves though right? Because the math that gets you to that point is dependent on sine and cosine identities that don't necessarily hold with...