What is Ammonia: Definition and 93 Discussions

Ammonia is a compound of nitrogen and hydrogen with the formula NH3. A stable binary hydride, and the simplest pnictogen hydride, ammonia is a colourless gas with a distinct characteristic of a pungent smell. It is a common nitrogenous waste, particularly among aquatic organisms, and it contributes significantly to the nutritional needs of terrestrial organisms by serving as a precursor to food and fertilizers. Ammonia, either directly or indirectly, is also a building block for the synthesis of many pharmaceutical products and is used in many commercial cleaning products. It is mainly collected by downward displacement of both air and water.
Although common in nature – both terrestrially and in the outer planets of the solar system – and in wide use, ammonia is both caustic and hazardous in its concentrated form. It is classified as an extremely hazardous substance in the United States, and is subject to strict reporting requirements by facilities which produce, store, or use it in significant quantities.The global industrial production of ammonia in 2018 was 175 million tonnes, with no significant change relative to the 2013 global industrial production of 175 million tonnes. Industrial ammonia is sold either as ammonia liquor (usually 28% ammonia in water) or as pressurized or refrigerated anhydrous liquid ammonia transported in tank cars or cylinders.NH3 boils at −33.34 °C (−28.012 °F) at a pressure of one atmosphere, so the liquid must be stored under pressure or at low temperature. Household ammonia or ammonium hydroxide is a solution of NH3 in water. The concentration of such solutions is measured in units of the Baumé scale (density), with 26 degrees Baumé (about 30% (by weight) ammonia at 15.5 °C or 59.9 °F) being the typical high-concentration commercial product.

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  1. aladinlamp

    I Adiabatic cooling in this process involving liquid ammonia

    Entry conditions: liquid ammonia , 1 bar , temp -34 celsius, i supply heat Q to heat it to 4.5 celsius, 10 bar, than i release it into empty vessel until inside reaches also 1 bar, expansion,adiabatic cooling, uses internal energy of ammonia to expand and cool itself 1. can we assume, after...
  2. C

    Do both the oxide & oxygenless ammonia combine with bleach to make poison?

    Is it just that both versions: Hydrochloric acid [H+(aq) Cl−(aq) or H3O+ Cl−], also known as muriatic acid Are always in solution? Or does only one or both combine with bleach to create that fatal poison?
  3. Algr

    Can Green Ammonia Be a Climate Fix?

    Wired has a new article that seems interesting. https://www.wired.com/story/can-green-ammonia-be-a-climate-fix/ The part about eliminating the use of methane in ammonia production sounds good to me. This could also be a good case of switchable demand - if the wind or solar power dips, the...
  4. Roby002

    I Feynman's description of the quantum behaviour of an ammonia molecule

    Hi guys! These days I've been reading Feynman's description of the quantum behaviour of an ammonia molecule. He assumes the N up or down as tuo basis states. He then says there's a little probability that the state UP becomes DOWN and viceversa. But for definition basis states are...
  5. R

    Bladder material for containing ammonia

    For my job I want to design a system that will have a bladder for containing and dispensing liquid ammonia, and I am trying to determine the ideal material/product that I could use. It will be fairly small, holding approximately 100g of liquid ammonia. I am envisioning a bag/pouch with a tube...
  6. kyphysics

    Can You Describe the Smell of Ammonia to Me?

    I am not sure what it smells like and am wondering if someone can describe it to me. The reason I ask is I am wondering if I have a mouse or rat in the home that is urinating on my clothes. I have read that the mouse/rat urine would smell like ammonia. So what does ammonia smell like? Thanks!
  7. G

    Chemistry What causes the release of ammonia in organic compounds?

    I don't really have any idea how to approach this, but the answer says that it is the compounds which are more basic than ammonia liberate it.
  8. A

    Conceptual thermodynamics problem about ammonia executing a Carnot cycle

    Is there a mathematical explanation for why the work done in the condenser (in process 2 to 3) is zero? I am aware that ammonia does not expand or compress in the condenser, only changes phase, but without knowing that the process takes place in a condenser and only considering the graph...
  9. B

    Ammonia Rankine cycle heat engine calculation

    A Rankine Cycle heat engine uses ammonia as a working fluid, turbine entry temperature is 25 Bar at 60 degrees Celsius. The turbine outlet pressure is 4 Bar, the question is: what is the outlet temperature? and if the output power is 6 Gigawatt (6x10^9 watt) what would the mass flow rate of the...
  10. H

    I Using Henry's law to calculate ammonia concentration?

    We have a closed chamber of 20 liters. The bottom of this chamber is filled with ammonia solution of 5% (=2,7M/liter). The solution temperature is controlled at 40°C I would like to calculate the concentration of ammmonia in the chamber air, above the solution. It should be something with...
  11. B

    Use of ammonia as the OTEC working fluid

    Anhydrous Ammonia liquid compressed to 20 Bar, heated from -33 C to 22 C, flow rate 2 tonnes per second, evaporated in boiler at 22C what could power extracted from turbine be? (outlet 1 Bar pressure)
  12. E

    What is the product of the reaction between ammonia and benzoic acid?

    Summary: I came across a question in my chemistry homework where i am supposed to write the balanced equation between ammonia and benzoic acid. I am not really good with chemistry but it's my last exam of chemistry ever in my high school experience, so i need to (and want to) get a good grade...
  13. L

    Density matrix of an ammonia molecule

    In ##t = 0##, we have ##\rho (0) = | + \rangle \langle + |##. The time evolution of the density matrix is given by ##\rho(t) = e^{-i\hat{H}t} \rho (0) e^{i\hat{H}t}## (I am considering ##\hbar = 1##). I can write the state ##| + \rangle ## as a linear combination of the eigenstates of the...
  14. L

    I Can the Energy of Ammonia Molecule Be Defined in a Non-Eigenstate State?

    We can consider the ammonia molecule ##NH_{3}## a two level quantum system, because the ##N## atom can be either above or below the plane formed by the three ##H## atoms. We call these states ##|+ \rangle## and ##|- \rangle##, respectively. The hamiltonian in the basis ##(|+ \rangle, |-...
  15. jappy190

    Calculating charge density of particular ligands

    Hi everyone, this is my first thread! I am currently undergoing a personal investigation that is based on one of the factors which effect the splitting of d orbitals in central metal ion by the charge density of ligands (in a complex ion). However, recently I got stumped by trying to...
  16. J

    Can liquid ammonia NH3 be electrolyzed?

    Can liquid ammonia NH3 be electolyzed to produce H2 and N2? I have heard of ammonia cracking using high temperature and a catalyst but I was wondering if electrolysis would be an easier way to produce hydrogen from ammonia. The H2 could be fed into a PEM fuel cell to produce electricity to run...
  17. Y

    Angular frequency of an ammonia molecule

    Hello 1. Homework Statement The dipole moment of an ammonia molecule is ##d_0=5*10^{-30} C.m##.If we apply a static electric field of ##\mathcal { E }=1*10^{6 }V*m^{-1}## to an ammonia molecule initially in the state ## |ψG⟩## where the nitrogen molecule is considered to be on the left,we make...
  18. José Ricardo

    Other hypothetical types of life

    is there any sci-fi that would rerate a life based on ammonia or silicon or any other type of life?
  19. Wrichik Basu

    Ammonia is a strong or weak field ligand?

    Ammonia is present in the spectrochemical series near the middle, just after water. Is it a strong field ligand, or a weak field ligand? Also, take into consideration the complex ##[Ni(NH_3)_4 Cl_2]##. Chloride ion is towards the left end of the spectrochemical series which means it is a weak...
  20. T

    Liquid ammonia is heated as it flows at a mean velocity of 2

    Homework Statement I've completed this problem and received the below feedback but have gone to a state of complete loss on what to do to amend. Can anyone provide a prompt ? Heat transfer coefficient is correct. But heat transfer rate is wrong - the question says Heat transfer per UNIT...
  21. BillTre

    An Ammonia Economy for Energy Transport and Storage

    With a new fuel cell to make ammonia from nitrogen and water (producing oxygen as a side product), Australian researchers are hoping to develop an efficient carbon-free way to store and transport energy from sources like solar panels and wind generators. Ammonia's: Longish Science mag news...
  22. T

    I Where in our solar system are asteroids that contain ammonia

    Hi! I'm doing a research project titled "Is it possible to colonise Mars?" I'm currently researching how to raise the temperature and pressure - and I've discovered to do this that re-directing asteroids towards Mars containing Ammonia would be vital. However, where do these asteroids that...
  23. S

    Orbital overlap diagram for ammonia

    Homework Statement Question: Drawn an orbital overlap diagram to represent the bonding in ammonia, NH3. Homework Equations [/B] none The Attempt at a Solution I learned that bonding occurs with the outermost s and p orbitals. For nitrogen: 1s2 , 2s2 , 2p3 For Hydrogren: 1s1 X 3. This is...
  24. S

    I Ammonia in icy moons of gas giants

    Its generally a established that ammonia is present under the ice of many moons of gas giants. I guess many in the astronomy/astrobiologists community don't spend much time at home, as they would have noticed that ammonia is a household disinfectant. I understand we don't have any idea of the...
  25. Frankenstein19

    Mass of ammonia through nitrate concentration problem

    Homework Statement The nitrate concentration in an aquifer is 20 ppm, and its volume is ten million liters. What mass of ammonia upon oxidation would have produced this mass of nitrate? [Hint: The moles of nitrogen in reactant and product are identical.] Homework Equations Possibly 1mg/L &...
  26. S

    What does the T-S diagram look like for an ammonia heat pump?

    I'm a bit confused as to what the Temperature-Entropy diagram looks like for an ammonia heat pump. I understand perfectly how a freon type of refrigerant heat pump works: starting with working fluid at a state of a low-Temperature & high-Entropy gas (which is at low pressure), do work on the...
  27. N

    Uncovering the Chemistry Behind Ammonia Production

    Homework Statement Hi, following Wednesday I'm going to produce ammonia in the lab at school but we have 3 questions we have to solve beforehand. The first one asks the global reaction being ammonium chloride reacting with calcium hydroxide to form ammonia, water and calcium chloride, but it...
  28. Thermo

    Reaction kinetics for ammonia

    I need to design an ammonia production process but I can't find the kinetic info from the articles online. The catalyst will be iron. Can somebody explain how to find kinetics data and conversion rate? I found some articles but there was no conversion info on them.
  29. nomadreid

    Ammonia release into the Mediterranean and coastal cities

    There is a dispute going on in one of the cities (which will remain nameless for this question, so as not to get political) on the Mediterranean about the following: there are about 120 thousand tonnes of ammonia imported by ship to this city every year (mostly for the production of fertilizer)...
  30. P

    Is Ammonia absorption in water exothermic?

    A person working in a company that manufactures absorption refrigerator told me that when Ammonia dissolves in water, the water temperature rises. In short, Ammonia absorption is water is exothermic. If it's true, then what's the reason behind it? Is it due to the fact that the latent heat of...
  31. P

    Solubility-Pressure graph of Ammonia

    I have searched to find out how the solubility of Ammonia changes with pressure, but haven't been able to find out. Though data about solubility change with temperature is available. One have told me that solubility of Ammonia varies little with pressure. But, I want to be assured about that...
  32. Konte

    I Molecular Hamiltonian - Ammonia

    Hello everybody, The general expression of molecular Hamiltonian operator for any molecule is: $$\hat{H} = \hat{T}_n+\hat{T}_e+\hat{V}_{ee}+\hat{V}_{nn}+\hat{V}_{en}+\hat{f}_{spin-orbit} $$ where: ##\hat{T}## correspond to kinetic energy operator ##\hat{V}## correspond to potential energy...
  33. P

    The best way to liquefy Ammonia

    Suppose, there is an amount of Ammonia vapour at atmospheric pressure and very very close to the boiling point say at -33°C. I want to know what's the best way to liquefy the Ammonia in terms of economy and energy. I know that it can be liquefied with cold fluids like liquid Nitrogen etc., but...
  34. Evangeline101

    Drawing Orbital overlap diagram for ammonia

    Homework Statement Homework Equations none This is how I was taught to draw orbital overlap diagrams in my lesson: The Attempt at a Solution [/B] I have drawn four attempts for a possible orbital overlap diagram of NH3: Attempt # 1: For this one, are the atoms arranged correctly...
  35. kq6up

    I How are Mixed State Ammonia Molecules Separated by an E-Field?

    I am working on a paper about Ammonia masers. It looks like Ammonia molecules are usually found in a superposition of even and odd parity states that are eigenstates of the inversion potential. That is the double well potential of the Nitrogen to tunnel through the Hydrogen plane. If it...
  36. kq6up

    A Potential Energy Curve for Ammonia Inversion?

    For my Quantum II class I am working on a paper about masers. I am using a naive model (a coupled pair of infinite potential wells), and I would like to find out where I can find a graph of the inversion potential energy curve. This would be a simple one dimensional curve of the potential...
  37. kq6up

    Avagadro Software and The Inversion Potential of Ammonia

    Would it be possible to get a 1 degree of freedom (the saddle line of the potential energy surface) potential energy curve from the inversion of Ammonia from the software Avagadro (I have just started playing with this software yesterday)? I am doing a physics paper for a graduate QM class, and...
  38. C

    PH rising during ammonia extraction with evaporation

    Hello there, During an experiment I had for my MSc Thesis for ammonia extraction, I used WWTP sludge and biogas digestate with an evaporation/distillation unit. I tried different combinations of sample vol. and evaporating flask vol. and then I added vacuum pressure. At first pH was dropping...
  39. S

    Are there any interactions from mixing these chemicals?

    Hi, So I recently got a new job, and when I was being instructed on how to close my department, I noticed that they used quite a bit of chemicals on the same surface (it's a salad bar). I was wondering if any of these chemicals could interact, and if so, what the products would be. First, the...
  40. F

    Ammonia molecule geometry and radiation

    What is the relationship between the nitrogen inversion (or "flip-flop" or "turning itself inside out") and the associated microwave radiation of the ammonia molecule ?
  41. skepticwulf

    Ammonia reacts with O2 problem

    Homework Statement Ammonia reacts with O2 to form either NO(g) or NO2(g) according to these unbalanced equations: NH3 + O2 ----> NO + H2O NH3 + O2 ----> NO2 + H2O In a certain experiment 2.00 moles of NH3 and 10.00 moles of O2 are contained in a closed flask. After the reaction is complete...
  42. E

    Will Ca(HCO3)2(aq) + 2NH3(aq) react?

    Hi, I'm wondering if an aqueous solution of Calcium Bicarbonate and Ammonia would react to form Ammonium Bicarbonate and Calcium Hydroxide. Additionally, would Calcium Carbonate react with Ammonia in solution to form Ammonium Carbonate? EJ
  43. N

    Can bacteria nitrify ammonia if it is bonded to a base?

    If an ammonium ion is bonded to let's say chlorine for simplicity sake, and NH4Cl is created, can nitrifying bacteria come in and still create nitrites and nitrates from the ammonia if it is bonded to the chlorine? I am asking this because I am planning to make a schematic for an aquaponics...
  44. MexChemE

    Equilibrium of ammonia synthesis

    Homework Statement In order to obtain commercial conversion levels in the production of ammonia, reactors operate between a pressure range from 150 to 300 atm, and a temperature range from 700 to 750 K. Calculate the mole fraction of N2 when the reaction reaches equilibrium at 300 atm and 723...
  45. Konte

    Ammonia Molecule: Exploring Excited States

    Hello everybody, I am new in this forum and also new with english langage, so don't be shocking if I write like a baby for you. I am little better for understanding when I read. My question: Books always tell us about the only ground state of ammonia molecule but never on its excited state...
  46. AdityaDev

    Basicity of hydrides if group 15 elements

    For group 15 elements the order of basicity given is NH3 > PH3 > AsH3 > SbH3 > BiH3 And order of reducing strength is BiH3 > sbH3 > AsH3 > PH3 > NH3 Why are they in opposite order? Reducing nature means tendency to donate electrons. Basicity means strength of bases and hence as basicity...
  47. E

    Solubility of Ammonia gas in Dimethyl Sulfoxide

    Hi Everyone, I'm writing a research plan for a college lab and I need the solubility of Ammonium Gas in Dimethyl Sulfoxide at STP and RTP. I've been searching internet and I haven't found anything. Please let me know the solubility or where I can find this information. Any help is greatly...
  48. E

    Will (NH4)HCO3 Form in Polar Solvents?

    I know aqueous Ammonium Bicarbonate forms when NH4+ and HCO3- ions are present in water after they've dissolved from their gaseous states of NH3(g) and CO2(g). This occurs in the reaction: NH3(g) + H2O(l) + CO2(g) => (NH4)HCO3(aq) If Ammonia gas and CO2 are present above a polar organic...
  49. H

    Ammonia Gas: Vapor Pressure > Atmospheric Pressure

    This is for "ammonia". The problem says that ammonia is a gas at room temperature. And that this tells us: "the fact that ammonia is a gas at room temperature tell us that vapor pressure of ammonia must be greater than atmospheric pressure". I know that for water, when the boiling point is...
  50. Astronuc

    Ammonia in breath or sweat after exertion or strenuous exercise

    I've been doing some long bike rides (50+ miles) on routes which include long (several miles) of low to moderate grades, or short distances of 3 to 8% grades. I've experience what smelled like ammonia or amines while exhaling through my nostrils, or while drinking and breathing heavily. I've...