What is Distributed: Definition and 225 Discussions

Distributed computing is a field of computer science that studies distributed systems. A distributed system is a system whose components are located on different networked computers, which communicate and coordinate their actions by passing messages to one another from any system. The components interact with one another in order to achieve a common goal. Three significant characteristics of distributed systems are: concurrency of components, lack of a global clock, and independent failure of components. Examples of distributed systems vary from SOA-based systems to massively multiplayer online games to peer-to-peer applications.
A computer program that runs within a distributed system is called a distributed program (and distributed programming is the process of writing such programs). There are many different types of implementations for the message passing mechanism, including pure HTTP, RPC-like connectors and message queues.Distributed computing also refers to the use of distributed systems to solve computational problems. In distributed computing, a problem is divided into many tasks, each of which is solved by one or more computers, which communicate with each other via message passing.

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  1. Omega0

    About the pointwise or distributed form of matter

    Please help me in understanding the history of physics regarding the atomic or non-atomic, say continous, structure of physics. In my years at school I grew up with physics of ultimate simplifications. Everything was a point "particle", like the moon revolving around the earth. Like the apple...
  2. vdance

    How are the poles of a tapered magnet distributed?

    How are the poles of a tapered magnet distributed? Is there any way to calculate its magnetic force?
  3. F

    I Distributed Forces and force density....

    Hello, Forces can be concentrated (when acting at a single point) or distributed (when acting over a surface or line). In the case of distributed forces, we can find the resultant concentrated force by calculating a surface or line integral of the force density ##f(x)## w.r.t. an area or length...
  4. Krismein

    Calculate deflection of rod/axlepipe due to distributed load

    Summary:: Calculate the deformation on a rod/axle/pipe due to a distributed load. I’m manually trying to calculate the deformation on a rod/axle/pipe due to a distributed load. The rod has an outer diameter of 62mm and an inner diameter of 50, is 170mm long, made from a material with an...
  5. shivajikobardan

    Comp Sci Why is distributed computing/system important/necessary for big data?

    What is 1 example of use of distributed system in big data? Here are the notes in my college curriculum, which I of course understand but it doesn't make clear what is the role of distributed system in big data-...
  6. shivajikobardan

    MHB Unravelling the Role of Distributed Systems in Big Data

    Here are the notes in my college curriculum, which I of course understand but it doesn't make clear what is the role of distributed system in big data-...
  7. E

    I Help with FLP argument of non-uniformly distributed surface charges

    Hello, I'm reading FLP vol II, and I would appreciate some help to understand the argument supporting Figure 6-6. Basically they claim if a sphere has non-uniform charge distribution whose surface density is proportional to the cosine of polar angle, then this surface charge distribution is...
  8. greg_rack

    Engineering Diagram of a beam with distributed load - SOLVED

    Hi guys, I'm wasting much time on this problem but still can't manage to get to a solution; I'll attach my attempt below. I started with drawing the FBD of the beam "sectioned" at point C, in order to find an expression for the internal shear force at that point and then equal that to zero...
  9. A

    A Trend in an approximately exponentially distributed random variable

    I have a series of variables X i where ultimately the variables Xi each follow approximately an exponential distribution with a constant rate. In the beginning, there is a certain long-term trend. Is there a probability model in which Xi depends on the outcome of Xi-1 so that in the long run...
  10. TheBigDig

    Average of 3 normally distributed random samples

    I've found part (i) by calculating the z-score for 40 $$Z = \frac {40- 50} {15} = -0.67$$ $$N(-0.67) = 1- N(0.67) $$ $$1- N(0.67) = 1-0.7486 = 0.2514$$ But parts (ii) and (iii) are confusing me. I have answers provided by my professor that say the mean and std deviation for (ii) and (iii) are...
  11. U

    MHB Expectation of Conditional Expression for Exponentially Distributed RV

    Given an Exponentially Distributed Random Variable $X\sim \exp(1)$, I need to find $\mathbb{E}[P_v]$, where $P_v$ is given as:$$ P_v= \left\{ \begin{array}{ll} a\left(\frac{b}{1+\exp\left(-\bar \mu\frac{P_s X}{r^\alpha}+\varphi\right)}-1\right), & \text{if}\ \frac{P_s X}{r^\alpha}\geq P_a,\\ 0...
  12. U

    MHB Verifying Solution for Exponentially Distributed Random Vars.

    Given two i.i.d. random variables $X,Y$, such that $X\sim \exp(1), Y \sim \exp(1)$. I am looking for the probability $\Phi$. However, the analytical solution that I have got does not match with my simulation. I am presenting it here with the hope that someone with rectifies my mistake. ...
  13. M

    I Failure rate for a uniformly distributed variable

    Hi, I have this question: If random variable T is uniformly distributed over [a, b] , what is its failure rate? Please help
  14. archaic

    Normally distributed student reaction time

    1) ##P(X>0.5)=P(Z>0)=0.5## 2) ##P(0.45<X<0.55)=P(X<0.55)-P(X<0.45)=P(Z<1)-P(Z<-1)\approx68\%## 3) ##P(X>x)=0.9\Leftrightarrow P(Z>\frac{x-0.5}{0.05})=0.9\Leftrightarrow1-P(Z\leq\frac{x-0.5}{0.05})=0.9\Leftrightarrow P(Z\leq\frac{x-0.5}{0.05})=0.1## I find that ##\frac{x-0.5}{0.05}=-1.28##, which...
  15. D

    Expected value of two uniformly distributed random variables

    ##X_1## and## X_2## are uniformly distributed random variables with parameters ##(0,1)## then: ##E \left[ min \left\{ X_1 , X_2 \right\} \right] = ## what should I do with that min?
  16. J

    I How Are Heavy Elements Distributed?

    Hello, I was just pondering how certain heavy elements group together in the new bodies that they form. Ex. that got me thinking: So gold would have been created one way thru a supernova right? Say this supernova spread some gold dust all over the cosmos. 1. Why whenever a body such as...
  17. Another

    What happens when electric current is distributed in the material?

    When supplying electricity to the material. the shape of the material may or may not be square. This material may be This material may be moisture materials or solid materials that may conduct electricity. I would like to know the travel characteristics of electric currents and the potential...
  18. Moara

    Spherical gas distributed symmetricaly over space

    . We have that energy in a infinitesimal Spherical layer with number of mols dn is: dU=Cv.T.dn (1) But by the ideal gas law: PV=nRT (2) Differentiation gives: PdV+VdP=RTdn (3) (3) in (1) and using CV=3R/2 (monoatomic) gives: dU=3/2.(PdV+VdP) (4) Integration of (4) over the whole gas will...
  19. JorgeM

    Algorithm for the min. distance over a set of points randomly distributed

    The only restrictions are: -There are N points randomly distributed over an X-Y plane and it is necesary to pass every point at least 1 time, in order to get the path of the minimun distance throught all of them. -If does not matter how many times you pass any of this points. -You have to pass...
  20. R

    I Re-scaling of exponentially distributed numbers

    For simplicity, let ##N=1##. The following histograms show my results. The generated random numbers are initially exponentially distributed. But after re-scaling they become almost uniformly distributed. What is the cause of that, and is there a solution? P.S. Here is my code in Matlab...
  21. Nima_khademi

    Calculating a distributed IR source radiant flux

    Hello everyone! does anybody know How can I calculate a distributed radiant flux of an IR source in a space? Is there any software or something?
  22. K

    Structural mechanics: Distributed forces on a structure

    Problem Statement: What's your result of ##X_A##? I find mine is different from the standard answer. Relevant Equations: My answer for $$X_A =5 kN$$ Problem Statement: What's your result of ##X_A##? I find mine is different from the standard answer. Relevant Equations: My answer for $$X_A...
  23. Anie Nancu

    How is an object's weight distributed among the fours legs of a table?

    When I place an object in a table, how is the weight distributed in the four legs? Is there an mathematical calculations for that?
  24. user366312

    A Question about the Poisson distributed of random variable

    The following is related to Poisson process: $$P(N_1=2, N_4=6) = P(N_1=2, N_4-N_1=4) = P(N_1=2) \cdot P(N_3=4)$$ Why is $$(N_3=4)=(N_4-N_1=4)$$? Can anyone explain?
  25. K

    I How is Dark Matter distributed around our galaxy?

    Wikipedia describes the distribution of Dark Matter as a halo around our galaxy. Are there any laws or equations on the distribution of dark matter? From what I have read, dark matter does not clump into stars, since it cannot radiate energy. It cannot be seen or directly observed. Does it repel...
  26. Eclair_de_XII

    Find the density of the sum of two jointly distributed rv's

    Homework Statement "Given that the joint distribution of ##X## and ##Y## is ##f(x,y)=\frac{1}{2}(x+y)e^{-(x+y)},\text { for } x,y>0## and ##0## otherwise, find the distribution of ##Z=X+Y##." Homework Equations ##f_Z(z)=\int_{\mathbb{R}}f(x,z-x)dx##...
  27. A

    Roof truss -- distributed load

    Homework Statement Snow on a roof supported by the Howe truss of the figure can be approximated as a distributed load of 20 lb/ft (measured along the roof). Treat the distributed load as you would the weight of the members; that is, replace the total load on each of the upper members as a...
  28. D

    A Estimation error from estimation quantile of normal distribution

    Hi guys, For my (master) project I am trying to find the probability that a random variable, which is normally distributed, exceeds a quantile that is estimated by a limited number of observations. See attached for my attempt. - Is it correct? - How to incorporate the fact that the mean and...
  29. A

    I P-values uniformly distributed

    Help. I need an intuitive, non-mathematical explanation of why p-values from hypothesis testing are uniformly distributed. I was talking to a social scientist and got a blank stare. I couldn't come up with anything except the proof. Thanks.

    Non uniformly distributed p-n junction related problem

    Hello guys, I stumbled upon this problem while studying non uniformly distributed pn junctions and finding difficulty solving this. Any help will be greatly appreciated. A diffused silicon p-n junction has a linearly graded junction on the p side with a = 2 x10^19 cm-4, and a uniform doping of...
  31. Renan

    Reduction of a simple distributed loading problem

    Why can't we use the NOTE method (exercise 4.21) on the exercise 4-156 ? A = ab/3 = (10.500)/3 = 1666,66 N --> this not right
  32. B

    I Beta Distributed Random Variates

    Hello, I am looking at different methods for generating random numbers from the beta distribution. I am a bit confused about the following statement: "It is known that if ##a, b ∈ N_{>0} = \{1, 2, 3, . . .\}##, ##Y = \frac{\sum_{i=1}^a X_i}{\sum_{j=1}^{a+b}X_k}## is ##\mathrm{Be}(a...
  33. F

    MHB Rv uniformly distributed

    Hello. Let $ Y=1-X^2 $, where $ X~ U(0,1) $. What statement is TRUE? -$ E(Y^2)=2 $ - $ E(Y^2)=1/2 $ - $ var(Y)=1/12 $ - $ E(Y)=E(Y^2) $ -None of the remaining statements. Solution: I compute: $ E(Y^2)=E(1-X^2)^2=E(1+X^4-2X^2)=1+E(X^4)-2E(X^2) $, then?
  34. M

    Statics of structure, distributed load

    Homework Statement All data are in the image uploaded Homework Equations I don't know how to deal with two confounded loads The Attempt at a Solution I really need fast replies thnak for your attempt
  35. Y

    E-field from uniformly distributed charges on sphere?

    So if I have a sphere of uniform charge distribution, the electric field at one point away from the circle would be affected by ALL individual charges distributed across the circle, right? From the picture I drew, there would only be a net effect of E-field in the X direction because there...
  36. L

    Question - Distributed weight on Camper Tires

    Let say I have a 4,000 lb. camper with two axles (four tires). There is 400 lbs. of tongue weight on the hitch which would leave the remaining 3,600 lbs. distributed to the four tires (900 lbs./tire). To keep it simple, let's say the weight of the camper is distributed equally left and right...
  37. Buggsy GC

    How will the voltage, current and resistance be distributed

    I have a lab to work through tomorrow morning and i need to be able to explain how the voltage, current and resistance in the compound circuit diagram below is distributed, and write an equation which can be used to measure the total resistance of the circuit. I know that when you normally try...
  38. lawa44

    Direct Stiffness Method for a distributed load

    I'm working on a question which asks to determine the deflection, curvature, forces and moments of a simply supported beam with a distributed load. diagram shown in here http://imgur.com/a/wpI4kInitially, I've done the calculation with 1 plane beam element with 2 nodes. At L = 0 and L = 3. But...
  39. G

    Stress in bracket distributed eccentric load

    Homework Statement I have designed a bracket and am interested in stress at a certain point. I have figured out the load needed to support. The area of interest carries an eccentric load so bending moment and axial load need to be figured out. Not sure which FBD is correct to use. Homework...
  40. T

    Statics problem. Cable with distributed load

    Homework Statement can someone please help and explain to me how to do this problem? all the data is in the picture above. Homework Equations i am not entirely sure which equations i should use. i know one possible equation is T=((T_o)^(2)+(wy)^(2))^(1/2) The Attempt at a Solution with the...
  41. M

    A How is radiation distributed in this experimental setup

    http://imgur.com/a/8B1EV http://imgur.com/a/8B1EV http://imgur.com/a/8B1EV As shown, an X-ray tube (source) is striking a fluorescent plate. The source has a large angle (100+) that the rays are emitted. How is radiation distributed (spatially and energetically) in this set up? Does this...
  42. G

    Evenly distributed beam with overhang and multiple supports

    Homework Statement I have an evenly distributed load with overhang and symmetry. I want to express the reaction loads as a function of support distances. I did the the 3 support problem with integrating a load structure and redundant and solving for the center reaction to find the outter...
  43. G

    Distributed load with overhang and multiple supports

    I have a structure that can have 3 or more supports. It will carry an evenly distributed load with overhang. I thought I would tackle 3 supports first and solve with superposition but am getting the center support reaction to be very low and will go negative as I move the outside supports...
  44. TheSodesa

    Probability for a binomially distributed variable X

    Homework Statement Let ##X \sim Bin(n, p)## where ##n=20## and ##p=0.1##. Calculate ##P(|X-\mu| \leq \sigma)##. Give your answer up to three decimal places. Homework Equations For a binomially distributed random variable, using moment generating functions we have: \begin{equation} \mu= E(X) =...
  45. D

    Question Regarding the Distributed Capacitance of a Winding

    First, take the case of a winding with a regular capacitor connected to both terminals of the winding. When a moving magnetic field induces a voltage therein, the cap becomes charged and a current flows in the conductor while cap is charging, producing a magnetic field. Next, take the case of a...
  46. C

    Moment of uniformly distributed load

    Homework Statement at R2 , is the moment wrong ? it should be 6R1 -200(2)(1) =1800 , am i right ? Homework EquationsThe Attempt at a Solution it's 200(2)(1) because the uniformly distributed load is from 2m away from R2 , so force should be 200(2) ??
  47. F

    Why Is There an Extra Term in the Distributed Load Calculation?

    Homework Statement For region 8<x<12 , why there's an extra (60-30y +3.75y^2 ) - (30y-7.5y^2) ? How to get that? I have no idea at all... Homework EquationsThe Attempt at a Solution here's my working, i have divided the triangle into three parts, i gt 129-80 -75- (60-30y=3.75y^2) -...
  48. C

    Understanding Distributed Load Forces: Causes and Effects on Objects

    Homework Statement why the force of distributed act upward? Homework EquationsThe Attempt at a Solution why shouldn't it act downward due to gravity pull?