What is Gasoline: Definition and 101 Discussions

Gasoline () or petrol () (see the etymology for naming differences and the use of the term gas) is a transparent, petroleum-derived flammable liquid that is used primarily as a fuel in most spark-ignited internal combustion engines. It consists mostly of organic compounds obtained by the fractional distillation of petroleum, enhanced with a variety of additives. On average, a 160-liter (42-U.S.-gallon) barrel of crude oil can yield up to about 72 liters (19 U.S. gallons) of gasoline after processing in an oil refinery, depending on the crude oil assay and on what other refined products are also extracted.
The characteristic of a particular gasoline blend to resist igniting too early (which causes knocking and reduces efficiency in reciprocating engines) is measured by its octane rating, which is produced in several grades. Tetraethyl lead and other lead compounds, once widely used to increase octane rating, are no longer used in most areas (they are still used in aviation
and off-road and auto-racing applications). Other chemicals are frequently added to gasoline to improve chemical stability and performance characteristics, control corrosiveness, and provide fuel system cleaning. Gasoline may contain oxygenating (oxygen-enhancing) chemicals such as ethanol, MTBE, or ETBE to improve combustion.
Gasoline can enter the environment uncombusted, both as liquid and as vapor, from leakage and handling during production, transport, and delivery (e.g., from storage tanks, from spills, etc.). As an example of efforts to control such leakage, many underground storage tanks are required to have extensive measures in place to detect and prevent such leaks. Gasoline contains known carcinogens. Gasoline emissions are estimated to cause over 100,000 premature deaths every year. Burning a liter of gasoline emits about 2.3 kg of CO2 contributing to human-caused climate change.

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  1. M

    Internal Combustion Engines: Liquid Gasoline or Vapor?

    In an Internal Combustion Engine, does liquid gasoline itself burn/combust, or is it the gasoline VAPOR emitted from the liquid gasoline by evaporation that burns/ combusts? (assuming that Oxygen is present in the Air and Fuel mixture)
  2. barryj

    Chemistry Pressure of gasoline in a closed container

    If I knew how much of the gasoline evaporated, then I could use p = nRT/V to fine the partial pressure of the gasoline and add it to the pressure of the atmosphere. So my question is, How do I find how much of the gasoline will evaporate. I would think that the gasoline would evaporate until it...
  3. Doshke

    Coefficient of volumetric expansion of gasoline at different temperatures

    I tried to solve the task in different ways, I had different ideas but none of them led me to the correct solution. I would be grateful if someone would explain at least the initial part of the task to me. True answer: 10-3K-1
  4. Thijske

    How to calculate the pressure of an explosion?

    Say there's 2 grams of gasoline (vapor) (E85) and sufficient air, how can you calculate the force/pressure of the explosion when this mixture is ignited? The pressure of the mixture before ignition is 400 pascal. The calorific value of the fuel is 45 MJ/kg. The volume in which the explosion...
  5. C

    Air Displacement Pressure

    I am struggling with what seemed to be a simple problem and any help would be greatly appreciated. I have to determine the amount of pressure created when air is displaced buy gasoline flowing into a tank. The gas enters the tank at 10gpm. The entrance has a diameter of 1.5" and the vent has a...
  6. H

    Automotive Exhaust brake for gasoline engines

    Everything I've read about them has said they would be ineffective or have very minimal benefit due to lower compression on non-diesel engines and other factors. Yet I am aware of one that sold well in the '80's and '90's and was tremendously effective as a "mountain tamer" in the RV industry...
  7. B

    How to Find the Number of Liters of Gas Used in a Gasoline Engine

    Homework Statement The problem is "A multicylinder gasoline engine in an airplane, operating at 2.40 10^3 rev/min, takes in energy 7.98 10^3 J and exhausts 4.50 10^3 J for each revolution of the crankshaft." and it wants me to find the liters of fuel consumed in 1 hr of operation if the heat...
  8. J

    Automotive 400 HP gasoline pickup engine vs 400 HP semi engine

    If you took a 400 horsepower gasoline pickup engine and a 400 horse power semi engine and hook them up to a transmission so that they had the same output rpm while each engine is at their peak horsepower rpm would they be able to pull the same load fairly similar?
  9. C

    MHB Average Density of Gasoline

    Dear Everybody, A 2.80 kg steel gas can holds 20 L of gasoline when full. What's the average density (in kg/m^3) of full gas can, taking into the volume occupied by steel as well as by gasoline? Work: Given the mass of the steel gas can= 2.80 kg The Total Volume of Gas can= 20.0 L The...
  10. bbbl67

    Automotive Gasoline Fuel Cells: Energy, Weight & Efficiency

    I understand that there is some research going on into gasoline (i.e. petrol) fuel cells (as opposed to the more typical hydrogen or alcohol fuel cells). How much energy can be released through a gasoline fuel cell, as opposed to simply burning it in an internal combustion engine? Will more...
  11. Delta Force

    Automotive Modern Inline Eight Gasoline Engines

    Could a modern inline eight gasoline engine be competitive with other designs, especially for high performance applications such as a limousine or supercar?
  12. F

    Thickening of Gasoline upon long term storage

    Once I had stored Petrol (Gasoline) in a airtight 1 liter plastic container for 6-8 months. When I opened the container, Gasoline had become a thick brown gel. Is it reusable ? Is it still Gasoline or it has become something else ? Thx
  13. T

    Calculating Gasoline Tank Depth and Volume

    Homework Statement (a) A rectangular gasoline tank can hold 39.0 kg of gasoline when full. What is the depth of the tank if it is 0.450 m wide by 0.900 m long? m (b) What is the volume of the tank? (It is suitable for a passenger car.) gal Homework Equations Density of gas=719.7=mass/volume...
  14. G

    I How to remove Ethanol from Gasoline?

    I have an idea that should work but I need some accurate numbers. If i mix 1 gallons of gasoline with 1 gallon of water then let is separate i should get approx 90% gas and 110% water that contains the alcohol. I think I can use less water but don't know how much less, 1 pint, 2 pints, 3...
  15. Saharka

    Heat of combustión of a mixture of two substances?

    Hello chemists, need some help here. I'm trying to calculate the power output of a certain otto cycle using different fuels, specifically gasoline, ethanol and different combinations of the two like 85% ethanol and 15% gasoline or 50% ethanol and 50% gasoline. However I have found it difficult...
  16. A

    Pressure generated from gasoline combustion

    how much pressure can be generated upon ignition of gasoline/air in an internal chamber at atmospheric pressure? I know that combustion engines can generate well over 1000 psi on the piston but this occurs when the air is compressed to begin with.
  17. M

    Stoichiometric air/fuel ratio of gasoline vapor

    Hello, Can someone tell me the optimum stoichiometric air/fuel ratio of gasoline VAPOR? I know that with liquid gasoline the optimum stoichiometric air/fuel ratio is 14.7 parts ambient air to 1 part gasoline. Thank you in advance for your help.
  18. Stephanus

    Where Does Our Gasoline Come From?

    Dear PF Forum, I'd like to ask a questin regarding our use of gasoline. Gasoline that we consume everyday, when did they come from? Is it from Carbon Period 350 mya? or Before And does Nature still produce fossil fuel? And if it doesn't when did Nature stop producing fossil fuel? Cretaceous...
  19. P

    Whether to clear carbon gasoline additive do?

    Does the gasoline additive can be complete and effective cleaning of carbon? This is the recipe I found on the Internet formula Methanol 60~70% Isopropyl alcohol CK Ethylene glycol monobutyl ether, 10~20% Diacetone alcohol 10~20% If I need to raise the octane number need to add tert-butyl...
  20. O

    Searching for a Gasoline Engine Drawing: 3.5-4 Liters

    Hi all I'm looking for gasoline engine drawing with a displacement of 3.5-4 liters. Any suggestions where I could find one? Oleg
  21. T

    Hydrogen vs Gasoline: Power Explosion in IC Engines

    which gas has more power explosion in internal combustion engine...hydrogen or gasoline...
  22. JN Morris

    Calculating Pressure Exerted on A Gasoline Column

    I am requesting for another set of eyes to double check my work, I believe my answer is correct but I am not sure. I also do not understand why 0.75 is the specific gravity of gasoline in this equation when it actually can range from 0.71-0.77 1. Homework Statement Calculate the pressure...
  23. B

    Automotive Combution, energy and pressure relation

    Hello guys, I'm currently working on a car simulation just for fun, but I'm stuck... The force to move a car is generated by burning fuel ( to be more percise, diesel or gasolin). But there are more variables: Pressure (i know this because of turbos and such) amount of fuel amount of air (or...
  24. Calpalned

    Problem 13.33 - Floating gasoline

    Homework Statement Homework Equations : Densities[/B] ##\rho = 680 ## gasoline ##\rho = 1000 ## freshwater ##\rho = 7800 ## steel The Attempt at a Solution I first converted 210 liters to volume in m3 by dividing 210 by 1000. Then I used this volume and the given density to find the mass...
  25. P

    Ethanol gasoline blends - reality vs science

    Hello everyone, (Hope this is the right place to post this) I am wondering, and have for a while, if there is any "real" answers, as to why some people report much lower fuel economy running ethanol mixed gasoline fuel. Math says, that ethanol fuel is lower in BTU's than gasoline, so taking...
  26. B

    Need help creating a gasoline electric bike

    Greetings! I have been thinking about creating a Gasoline electric bike. The reason being is that good batteries are very expensive. In fact more expensive than a good quality gasoline motor. I don't want a direct drive gasoline motor do to it being less stealthy and more cumbersome running...
  27. G

    80% Gasoline + 20% Kerosene = 20% more power?

    I did an experementing mixing 10%, 20%, 30% and 25% kerosene with gasoline that contains 10% alcohol. 10% kerosene + 90% gasoline the lawn mower engine starts easy and runs very good. 20% kerosene + 80% gasoline the lawn mower engine starts easy and runs very good. 30% kerosene + 70%...
  28. N

    Gasoline smell does not inginte

    Say there is a chair soaked in gasoline. If someone is to walk in the room the smell is immediate if the chair was lit on fire the liquid gasoline would ignite the chair. However, what about the particles that constitute the smell of it? Why don't they ignite as well? What is the nature of the...
  29. C

    What happens when gasoline gets old - chemically and in car engine?

    Recently I bought an old car (1954 Ford Zephyr, a six-cylinder 2.2 liter English car) whose recent history was essentially unknown to the seller but had probably done little running for some time. He warned me that the engine was not running correctly - the car was blowing black smoke and...
  30. C

    Torque of a small gasoline engine

    Does someone know how much torque a 20hp gasoline engine produce at 3500rpm? An equation that I can use to figure this out would be helpful also.
  31. Art_Vandelay

    Entropy & Gasoline HW: Answer & Explanation

    Homework Statement Premium gasoline produces 1.23×108 J of heat per gallon when it is burned at a temperature of approximately 400ºC (although the amount can vary with the fuel mixture). If the car's engine is 25.0% efficient, three-fourths of that heat is expelled into the air, typically at...
  32. K

    Gasoline engine - max torque and efficency

    I have the following question, intended for a car powered by a 4 cylinder, non turbo, gas engine. I would like to a rather conceptual answer, but anyway I will put some actual numbers. It´s said to achieve it´s max torque (200Nm) at 4000 RPM It´s max power is 150HP at 6500RPM I don´t know...
  33. berkeman

    Making gasoline from seawater (to store energy)

    This looks like it's mainstream work being done at the Naval Research Lab -- interesting stuff: U.S. Navy's new stealth destroyer http://www.cnn.com/2014/04/10/tech/innovation/navy-new-technology/index.html?hpt=hp_t2
  34. Crush1986

    Calculating Gasoline Consumption for Car Acceleration

    Homework Statement Gasoline has an energy content of 9.38 × 10^5 J/oz. If a car, with a mass of 1500 kg, is accelerated to a speed of 29.1 m/s, how much gas is consumed by the engine, assuming 40% efficiency? Homework Equations w=fd w= ΔKE The Attempt at a Solution So I...
  35. Nemo's

    Calculating Volume of Steel for 230-L Steel Drum with Gasoline

    Homework Statement A 230-l steel drum is completely full of gasoline. What total volume of steel material can be used in making the drum if the gasoline filled drum is to float in fresh water with the whole volume immersed? Homework Equations ρwater=1000 kgm^-3 ρgasoline=680 kgm^-3...
  36. S

    Electric vehicles vs gasoline vehicles

    Will an electric vehicle use less joules going up a hill than a gasoline vehicle, because electric vehicles are more efficient? I've read that electric vehicles use on average 800,000 joules per mile, while gas vehicles use 3.3 million joules per mile. Assuming those numbers are based on...
  37. C

    Energy content of gasoline and hydrogen comparative math question

    Homework Statement A typical car gas tank holds 15 gallons A) Calculate the energy content of this much gasoline B) Calculate the chemical energy content of 15 gallons of hydrogen gas under normal conditions (12.8 MJ/m^3) and compare with the energy content of gasoline Homework...
  38. T

    Automotive Gasoline Combustion: Basics of Heat, Air, and Fuel Reactions

    Hello. I've gone round and round in my studies of engines and related technologies and I've come to the point where I would benefit from a better understanding of how combustion reactions occur and are sustained in gasoline engines. I have been looking for some basic introductory level...
  39. dkotschessaa

    Gasoline Tips Save Money: true?

    So this one is going around Facebook. I wanted to run it past my trusted scientifically literate friends here at PF before heeding any of the "advice."
  40. B

    Trying to make Gasoline from scratch, figuring it out.

    Hey everyone, I am trying to figure out how to do this, but I don't know where to start, can I use pressure, electricity, graphite, and pure hydrogen, do i need to melt the graphite, or maybe just dissolve it. I could use a little help, I know it may be cheaper to just buy it, but that defeats...
  41. R

    How is the torque curve of a gasoline engine different from a diesel?

    Hi, my lecturer has given us two graphs showing the general shapes of the max torque curves for both gasoline and diesel engines, and they clearly show that the diesel engine has a much flatter torque curve than the gasoline engine, but not explained why. Expected to find this information...
  42. Low-Q

    Gerotor style turbine , or gasoline engine

    Gerotor style "turbine", or gasoline engine Hi, I have read a bit about gerotor style pumps. It seems to me that there is only two rotating, balanced parts. If water pressure can enter on one side, the water have no where else to go than through the gerotor before it can continue. The...
  43. U

    Acetone in Gasoline: UOP Shadow Racing Team Tested

    I was cruising the web for race fuel ideas and found this. I had to comment... https://www.physicsforums.com/showthread.php?t=195647 The UOP Shadow team ran a Can-Am car in 1971 and their crew chief was a self taught engineer named Peter Bryant, a really smart guy. UOP sold unleaded fuel and...
  44. P

    Comparing the Internal Energy of Gasoline and Hydrogen

    Calculating the internal energy of gasoline is fairly simple, because it wouldn't vary much with temperature or pressure. For hydrogen, though, it would vary significantly with each. What sort of ranges would we be looking at? I'm curious if it would be possible to get the same amount of...
  45. J

    Convert Used Oil to Gasoline: Jonathan's Quest

    l am trying to use used oil to gasoline engine l make geet reactor to vaporized petrol diesel but no success to oil how can l convert used engine oils and food oils to gas or flammable liqiuds thanks jonathan
  46. M

    I have an idea for a gasoline powerd fridge, need input.

    So last night, a bit on the tipsy side, I drew this on paper(then in paint) and I don't see why It would not work. I'm not really an engineer so I'm not sure if there's some flaw in my logic. The idea is based on a 5HP engine with an electric starter. It automatically starts the engine using a...
  47. J

    Automotive Can a diesel engine run on gasoline?

    I haven't read or heard about anywhere, but is it possible to run a diesel engine on gasoline/petrol?
  48. T

    Avg force produced by gasoline

    Homework Statement "One gallon of gasoline contains 3.1*10^7 calories of potential energy that are released during combustion. If 1 gal of gasoline can provide the force that moves a car through a displacement of 25 mi, what is the average force produced by the gasoline?" Homework Equations...
  49. J

    Does cold gasoline have less energy

    Driving at -30 Celsius versus driving at +25 Celsius. The gasoline has less kinetic energy at -30 Celsius... Yet our cars run fine at -30. You would think that there would be a massive difference because 60 degrees celsius difference (-30 vs +30) is a LOT of kinetic energy. Most...
  50. jtbell

    How much gasoline do you use?

    In one of their frequent reports about the rising price of gasoline, ABC's "World News Tonight" recently cited a survey claiming that the average American family used $4000 worth of gasoline last year. I'm one of those people who writes down every gasoline purchase in a little notebook, to keep...