What is Folding: Definition and 47 Discussions

A folding bicycle is a bicycle designed to fold into a compact form, facilitating transport and storage. When folded, the bikes can be more easily carried into buildings, on public transportation (facilitating mixed-mode commuting and bicycle commuting), and more easily stored in compact living quarters or aboard a car, boat or plane.
Folding mechanisms vary, with each offering a distinct combination of folding speed, folding ease, compactness, ride, weight, durability, and price. Distinguished by the complexities of their folding mechanism, more demanding structural requirements, greater number of parts, and more specialized market appeal, folding bikes may be more expensive than comparable non-folding models. The choice of model, apart from cost considerations, is a matter of resolving the various practical requirements: a quick, easy fold, a compact folded size, or a faster but less compact model.There are also bicycles that provide similar advantages by separating into pieces rather than folding.

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  1. H

    Auto/Motor Building an Automatic A0 Paper Folding Machine: Tips and Tricks

    I want to make an automatic A0 folding machine that I can use myself. But I couldn't find the mechanism in the videos I watched, I want to get your opinions.
  2. H

    I find the concept of folding a little fantastical

    All the Geography/Geomorphology books I have come across with, simply write “Himalayas are fold mountains”, “folding is the warping of land due to tectonic motions”, “earth surface is like a dough which can be warped by compressing forces”. I mean, every time I fell on ground I never felt...
  3. EFech

    How Do Configurational and Conformational Entropy Differ in Protein Folding?

    I have been reading about protein thermodynamics and found different types and models for entropy calculation before and after protein folding. I understand Vibrational, conformational, configurational entropy are some of the most studied "types" of protein folding entropy. My questions is...
  4. mmcnaught831

    How to translate force into upward hinging motion between two panels?

    Pictured below are two hinged panels that can rotate upward to form an upside-down V. In position 1, the panels are lying flat. In position 2, the panels have folded together and the joined edge is raised up. Normally, in order to actuate this hinging motion, one would need to manually lift the...
  5. BWV

    AI-Powered AlphaFold 2: Revolutionizing Protein Folding

    This is cool - AI is the future of biology, humans just arent smart enough https://deepmind.com/research/case-studies/alphafold https://predictioncenter.org/casp14/doc/presentations/2020_12_01_TS_predictor_AlphaFold2.pdf Deepmind trained on 100K proteins and is now in the second iteration of...
  6. epenguin

    Protein folding AI: "Will Change Everything"

    Google’s deep-learning program for determining the 3D shapes of proteins stands to transform biology, say scientists...
  7. A

    Misc. Paper folding manual machine - plan folding

    Hello everyone! I am trying to replicate a folding machine, just as a fun project for home use. I understand this simple idea of a folding machine, and I know which measurements I should take. The question behind this project that I simply can´t understand is the spring linear clamp which...
  8. cobalt124

    Protein Folding and NP-Completeness

    I'm looking to understand how protein folding has been shown to be NP-complete, but from the computational side rather than the biological side (if this is possible). Is there an analogous NP-complete problem that is similar? I read that self avoiding random walks might have something to do with...
  9. I

    Different folding options for a protein?

    Hello, I was wondering whether one same protein can assume different foldings that can do different functions in the organism? (each folding still having the usual active/inactive state) And if the is a specific example for this? Many thanks for any thoughts!
  10. S

    Ionic bond strength in protein folding?

    Our text says that ionic bonds are much weaker in aqueous solutions than covalent bonds, due to the dissociative properties of most ionic compounds in water. I read elsewhere though, that in general, ionic bonds are stronger due to the increased polarity. So, in protein folding, when different...
  11. I

    MHB Discover the Best Paper Folding Techniques: AG = 30cm and More Tips!"

    So I know that AG is 30cm, what else do I do?
  12. S

    I How to Fold Data Points to a Period

    Hello! I need to fold some data points to a period, but I am not sure what does that mean. Some help please.
  13. A

    JavaScript Help with setting up code folding in NetBeans 8.1

    Hi guys, I understand there is a way to "fold" the function lines of my HTML/Javascript code into single lines "function" blocks like I can do in notepad++. I tried setting up code-folding in Netbeans using Tools/Options/Editor/Folding and enabled code folding and restarted Netbeans but...
  14. I

    How many times does an average protein fold?

    Does anyone know how many times would an average protein fold in its lifetime? And how long do proteins live on average? Also, another quick question, somewhat related, any knowledge on how many "cascades" of different proteins making a conformational change on different new proteins can there...
  15. I

    Methionine and cysteine influence on proteins?

    Hello, I was just wondering what are the distinct features that methionine and cysteine add to proteins when they happen to be in them, as opposed to proteins that contain only non-sulfur-containing amino acids? I am especially if they create unique conformations for the proteins, that other...
  16. R

    A CO2 Laser Beam Folding for 10kw Power Output

    Why is it that equivalent length is so important for laser beam power output (Length = Power/60) - http://www.laserk.com/newsletters/whiteCO.html. I was reading that in order to get multiple kilowatts of power out of a CO2 laser beam you have to fold the beam a great number of times. Why is...
  17. N

    Mossbauer data analysis - folding

    Hi there, this looks like a great forum :-) I would need help with the folding procedure for raw data from mossbauer spectroscopy. Our software doesn't, for some reason, fold the data correctly, so we want to attempt a manual procedure. But how do we determine the correct sense/direction of...
  18. ZetaOfThree

    Current research on protein folding

    As a non-biologist, I'm curious: What are some things that current research on protein folding is focusing on? What are some current challenges that researchers are facing? I understand that the protein folding problem is a very important problem in the field of biophysics. Any experts on here?
  19. W

    How do folding wings maintain structural integrity? Removable wings?

    Without a single full lengthed spar going through the whole length, how do folding wings and removable wings be designed such that they maintain structural integrity in flight and other motions involving declarations and accelerations? For example, this is the folding wing of a Sonex Onex...
  20. K

    A quick question from a layman about folding space time

    I was just doing some thinking about the folding of space time. I have seen a demonstration that a piece of paper is folded in two and a hole is poked through the two layers. Are there any negative consequences and if so what are the consequences of folding space time, and what are the...
  21. MarkFL

    MHB The Calculus of folding to make boxes

    A problem that students in their first semester of elementary calculus commonly encounter involves taking a rectangular sheet of some material, and cutting squares from each corner so that when the resulting two pairs of flaps are folded up, an open box results. The students are asked to find...
  22. S

    DNA Origami: Research & Study Resources for Trapping & Folding Processes

    I'm working on a project in the field of DNA origami and need links to research papers and study content for the trapping processes and folding processes. Can anyone help?
  23. H

    Force to keep the folding doors

    Hello, I would like to ask you to calculate the force F, which needed to keep the folding doors in this position. I would like to know what is the procedure for calculating forces. For each answer, thank you in advance.
  24. P

    Paper Folding Problem (Exponential Functions)

    Homework Statement The paper folding problem was a well-known challenge to fold paper in half more than seven or eight times, using paper of any size or shape. The task was commonly known to be impossible until April 2005, when Britney Gallivan solved it. A sheet of letter paper is about...
  25. B

    Folding Kinetics: Equation & Chevron Plot

    Homework Statement Folding can be described as transition between the native and unfolded state. In increasing concentrations of denaturant, a fold disintegrates with a rate lnKU = ln KU H20 - m ku [denat] when the concentration of denaturant is above that needed to unfold 50 % of...
  26. B

    Folding Kinetics: Equations, Chevron Plots & Mutation Effects

    1. Folding can be described as transition between the native and unfolded state. In increasing concentrations of denaturant, a fold disintegrates with a rate lnKU = ln KU H20 - m ku [denat] when the concentration of denaturant is above that needed to unfold 50 % of protein. Conversely...
  27. B

    What force opens a folding knife?

    If I flick open a folding knife with a flick of my wrist, what force is that? Is it centrifugal force, centripetal force, or some other force?
  28. W

    RV folding table - Steel Tube question

    Hi All, Thanks for your time. I'm not an engineer nor do I play one on TV. Last time I did any load calculations was in a some college M.E. classes and that was so long ago we were all still using slide rules just a couple years before. No really. I'm going to build a fold-up table for my...
  29. Simfish

    Will better knowledge of protein folding mean that we can predict rxns?

    These days, it seems that we all rely on trial and error in order to predict the biochemical reactions of new drugs (say, we want a drug to be a ligand, but we have to rely on trial and error to predict whether or not it will actually fit - plus - we also need trial and error to determine the...
  30. S

    Folding "+" or Non-folding "X" Rear Fins?

    + or X Rear fins?? http://img124.imageshack.us/img124/2054/c6xxvp3.jpg Notice the folding rear fins and fact that they are at 45 degrees X relative to the intake. [PLAIN][PLAIN]http://img208.imageshack.us/img208/363/c602xxxnm5.jpg But clearly the rear fins r "+" Now provided that...
  31. T

    Energy Needed to Fold Spacetime?

    I know that folding spacetime is completely possible, and I'm pretty sure that the answer I'm looking for is in Einstein's field equations. I just don't know enough about tensor calculus (yet) to figure this out for myself. So my question: how much energy is required to completely fold a certain...
  32. O

    Small wheel folding bike, which rc engine best for lightweight n performance ?

    I got a small 16inch folding bike weight 13kgs and managed to shed it down to 9kg and working in weight reduction further... eg using hollow shaft at the peddle and using clips at the axles and replacing to 14inch rims and redoing the frame in lighter stainless 201 - these are my next to-do...
  33. E

    String theory and 6D Yau-Calibi like protein folding?

    In string theory, a solution involving flat 10D space seems like a valid solution. The Universe could be described by a solution that is 10D space, all large and flat. Of course for string theory to describe our universe, 3D remain large and flat, and 6D or 7D are curled up in a Yau Calibi...
  34. G01

    Montague Folding Bikes: Reviews and Advice Needed

    I'm thinking about getting one of these Montague folding bikes, since I plan on moving to a bigger city and may not have a car: http://www.montagueco.com/bikes/dx-folding-bike.html Has anyone ever used one of these bikes? I never liked folding bikes before since they either looked...
  35. P

    Optimization problem: Folding a triangle to minimize one side

    Homework Statement The upper right-hand corner of a piece of paper, 12 in by 8 in is folded over to the bottom edge. How would you fold it to minimize the length of the fold? In other words, how would you choose x to minimize y? Homework Equations None so far. The Attempt at a...
  36. Q

    The Folding Challenge - how low can your ratio go?

    I had a typical A4, 80 gsm sheet of paper and I had determined that its dimensions were: 210 x 297 x 0.11 mm. The last dimension was obtained using an old micrometer I possesses and is close to the average of four measurements taken in various places on that piece of paper. Thus the volume of...
  37. C

    Designing folding legs for a bunk bed .

    Designing folding legs for a bunk bed... Im having trouble finding a suitable hinge mechanism which would allow 2 legs under a bed to be locked and pulling them down into a vertical position they would lock. Does anyone have any ideas or links to a suitable hinge design. Thanks
  38. E

    Paper folding and mathematics?

    I was reading on wikipedia when i stumbled through this article on paper folding which said: Paper folds can be constructed to solve square roots and cube roots; fourth-degree polynomial equations can also be solved by paper folds. The full scope of paper-folding-constructible algebraic...
  39. S

    What is the Folding Space Theory and its Potential Applications?

    I don't know if I am posting this in the right section, I am still figuring these boards out. Could someone explain the concept of the folding space theory? I did some research, but I would like others views on the topic. -Seeruk
  40. K

    Solve the A4 Sheet Folding Puzzle!

    In year 12 my maths teacher gave the class this puzzle. The idea is to fold an A4 sheet of paper, along the lines, such that the numbers are in order. Just to make it clear, the numbers don't have to be in order as you unfold it or anything, but when folded the rectangle of paper directly...
  41. wolram

    Computer What is the best budget-friendly computer for folding?

    If i build a computer purly for folding, what are my best options. I do not want to spend a fortune, but i want a system that will make a reasonable contribution.
  42. M

    Folding@Home: Join the OA Team & Install Today!

    is anyone folding? folding@home it can be installed in console, graphical, or even screensaver :D if ur about to start...use 24 for the team number to join my team...the OA :P
  43. J

    Protein folding thermodynamics

    My textbook’s explanation for spontaneous renaturation of defolded protein is this: “Although in defolded state protein has grater entropy, greater degree of disorder, it folds into original conformation (lower entropy), and this seems to be in collision with the II law of thermodynamics. But...
  44. J

    Thermodynamics of protein folding

    My textbook’s explanation for spontaneous renaturation of defolded protein is this: “Although in defolded state protein has grater entropy, greater degree of disorder, it folds into original conformation (lower entropy), and this seems to be in collision with the II law of thermodynamics. But...
  45. K

    The Mystery of Folding Paper: Can We Do More Than 8 Times?

    folding paper Why can't we fold a piece of paper more than 8 times, no matter how large it is? PS I've seen this question in another forum quite a long time ago but no one seems to know why. Some claimed that it can be explained by using some chemistry principles while others said it is...
  46. S

    (Not folding space) Instant Travel Form A-B? But Not Time (theory)

    Stop me if this is total poop or if it has been theorized already: (I may ramble a bit) My theory of instant travel (I hope). The universe has no area or shape, one of the most recent theories is that there is not just one universe but a “multiverse” made up of an infinite number of...
  47. E

    Investigating Interplay between Protein Folding Frustrations and Motifs

    The following is the abstract to an article by Joan Emma Shea et al published in journal of chemical physics volume 113 number 17, 1 nov 2000 "The amino acid sequence and the folding motif are essential in determining the protein folding mechanism. The interplay between energetic...