What is Electronics: Definition and 619 Discussions

Electronics comprises the physics, engineering, technology and applications that deal with the emission, flow and control of electrons in vacuum and matter. It uses active devices to control electron flow by amplification and rectification, which distinguishes it from classical electrical engineering which uses passive effects such as resistance, capacitance and inductance to control current flow.
Electronics has had a major effect on the development of modern society.
The identification of the electron in 1897, along with the subsequent invention of the vacuum tube which could amplify and rectify small electrical signals, inaugurated the field of electronics and the electron age. This distinction started around 1906 with the invention by Lee De Forest of the triode, which made electrical amplification of weak radio signals and audio signals possible with a non-mechanical device. Until 1950, this field was called "radio technology" because its principal application was the design and theory of radio transmitters, receivers, and vacuum tubes.
The term "solid-state electronics" emerged after the first working transistor was invented by William Shockley, Walter Houser Brattain and John Bardeen at Bell Labs in 1947. The MOSFET (MOS transistor) was later invented by Mohamed Atalla and Dawon Kahng at Bell Labs in 1959. The MOSFET was the first truly compact transistor that could be miniaturised and mass-produced for a wide range of uses, revolutionizing the electronics industry, and playing a central role in the microelectronics revolution and Digital Revolution. The MOSFET has since become the basic element in most modern electronic equipment, and is the most widely used electronic device in the world.
Electronics is widely used in information processing, telecommunication, and signal processing. The ability of electronic devices to act as switches makes digital information-processing possible. Interconnection technologies such as circuit boards, electronics packaging technology, and other varied forms of communication infrastructure complete circuit functionality and transform the mixed electronic components into a regular working system, called an electronic system; examples are computers or control systems. An electronic system may be a component of another engineered system or a standalone device. As of 2019 most electronic devices use semiconductor components to perform electron control. Commonly, electronic devices contain circuitry consisting of active semiconductors supplemented with passive elements; such a circuit is described as an electronic circuit. Electronics deals with electrical circuits that involve active electrical components such as vacuum tubes, transistors, diodes, integrated circuits, optoelectronics, and sensors, associated passive electrical components, and interconnection technologies. The nonlinear behaviour of active components and their ability to control electron flows makes amplification of weak signals possible.
The study of semiconductor devices and related technology is considered a branch of solid-state electronics.

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  1. ARoyC

    Engineering Load Line Analysis of a Diode

    I have drawn the I-V characteristic graph of the diode. I am facing problems with drawing the load line. For what value of E (Source Voltage), should I draw the Load Line? To get the I-V graph, I had to continuously change E.
  2. T

    Studying Critique My Self-Study Schedule (Signal Processing & RF Electronics)

    Hello everybody. I have already graduated I am currently in training at work which I am required to finish intensive courses. So I will start when it's completed. My interests are in Signal Processing & RF Electronics which you could tell by the study plan I created. I will be taking a slow...
  3. R

    Engineering How to calculate the interference voltage?

    Hello everyone, I have this circuit and I need to determine the interference voltage. I am not sure, where the interference voltage is applied and how to determine it. I think the interference voltage is uv nad my equivalent circuit looks like this: Am I in heading into the right direction...
  4. O

    M700 Steel in Maxwell Electronics 2D Material Library

    Hi everybody, I don't have M700 grade silicon/electrical steel data to add to Maxwell Electronics 2D Material Library. How/Where can I find this data? Could you help me? Thanks, Oguzhan Gonc
  5. PainterGuy

    Why digital electronics section start with analysis of inverter?

    Hi, Both NAND and NOR are considered to be universal gates. For example, NAND gates can be used in combination to perform the AND, OR, and inverter operations. The same could be said of NOR gate. Then, why the digital electronics section of electronics textbooks almost always start with the...
  6. M

    How to program a buzzer to a PIC18F452 with PROTEUS and MPLAB IDE?

    crystal frequency is 4MHz The code i have tried is: #include <p18cxxx.h> #include <xc.h> void main(void) { TRISC = 0; // making TRISC pins output ADCON1 = 0x07; // making them digital pins while(1) { RC0 = 1; __delay_ms(5000); RC0 = 0...
  7. M

    How do you use electrical components adequately?

    The image i provided is a section of microcontroller circuit that i used to interface code in C with the I/O port of the microcontroller, in Proteus. I have realized i was only ever told to learn how to measure the voltage and current across the components, Kirchhoff's rules and all, and...
  8. V

    Understanding Fundamentals of Electronics: Solving an Electric Charge Problem

    It's not a homework. I came up with this problem myself. Trying to understand fundamentals of electronics. Do you know how to solve it? Is voltage somehow related to electron energy levels? What knowledge should I gain to be able to solve problems like that? Thank you! If we ground the cathode...
  9. Raihan amin

    Understanding a heat sensor circuit?

    What I understand is that the β parameter of the npn transistor is temperature dependent. Increasing the temperature increases the collector current and hence the LED turns ON. But I don't understand the resistor arrangement.Also I can see that the diode is keeping the Base-Emitter junction in...
  10. ARoyC

    Measuring Capacitance using a basic Multimeter

    Is there any way to measure the capacitance of a capacitor indirectly using a multimeter that does not have the option to measure capacitance directly?
  11. Jason-Li

    Comp Sci Signal to Noise Ratio Help

    So pretty confident I understand part (a) however for part (b) I'm not sure if I have carried it out correctly if someone could give me a pointer? (b) 5dBmV Input as a voltage: 5=20Log(V/1mV) V=105/10 V=1.77827941mV Then the noise level is 20dbμV so changing to a voltage: 20=20*Log(V/1μV)...
  12. VVS2000

    I Electronics experiment boards -- What experiment can I do with these?

    I recently got these electrical experiment boards to do some experiments but I am new to doing experiments with such boards. Can someone help? Thanks in advance https://ibb.co/zXTbNby https://ibb.co/tDjKrV0 https://ibb.co/JdCTgqY https://ibb.co/DDkGjbp
  13. V

    LED module failing due to DC motor?

    I use a 2 Relay Motor module to control Direction on a motor (linear actuator). When Relay A is active, actuator retracts. When Relay B is active, actuator extents and Led Module is activated. After some repetitions Led module fail. Cause of the fail? I believe Surge voltage, although i am not...
  14. C

    White stuff of ants colony inside electronics

    What is this white stuff in the ants colony inside electronics? Is it sugar? nest? I presume the ants were attracted to the warmth of the pcb? It's a Morley addressable smoke detector Separate question. I saw illustrations of a smoke detector with light catcher. But the Morley doesn't...
  15. Y

    Comp Sci How does a washing machine make use of digital electronics?

    I know what Boolean algebra and logic gates are, but I am having a hard time to describe how washing machines operate on digital electronics. Here's my attempt 'Washing machine have various functions like different cycle settings for various temperatures or cycle duration, or a delayed start...
  16. Wrichik Basu

    Other Any books on these topics in Analog electronics?

    In our fourth semester academic curriculum, we have a paper on Analog Electronics. (For those who don't know: I am studying UG physics major.) I have found some good lectures online that cover a part of the course, but I don't have any material for the rest of the topics. The following topics...
  17. S

    Engineering Please help me with this full wave rectifier question

    [New poster has been reminded by the Mentors to show their work on schoolwork problems] I have tried many times to solve this problem, but can't understand how to get the value of Im and hence cannot find the Peak & other values of the load current. Please help me to solve...
  18. P

    Engineering Small signal AC modeling for a boost converter with resistive losses

    I've attached my attempts at the solution and the actual question below. I believe the only issue I am having is I don't know how to get rid of "I" in both my final inductor and capacitor equations as the HW states I shouldn't have anything in term of I. I believe I need to put "I" in terms of...
  19. Avaro667

    Courses Electronics vs Telecom for Physics?

    Hello everyone,i would be greatful if someone could take the time to answer the following questions for me : -First is,does it worth getting a physics degree after completing an EE degree ? Or would be better to just do a masters/PhD in physics? -Could you suggest courses an EE could take that...
  20. Mondayman

    Intro Physics Textbook on Electronics and Circuit Analysis

    Hi folks, I'm looking for a solid introductory book on electronics and circuit analysis. I have seen The Art of Electronics highly recommended. I will likely get it but as a supplement. Does anyone know of any other good electronics textbooks? I don't mind old textbooks. Some of the newer...
  21. J

    Wheatstone Bridge question

  22. T

    Questions for Electronics Engineering Experts: Oscilloscope, Function Gen & DMM

    Hi experts, I am a student of electronics engineering and a new member. I have few questions related to Oscilloscope, function generator and Digital Multimeter. 1. what does the DC offset on the function generator do? 2. What is the frequency range and type of signals available? 3. What is the...
  23. Christoffer B

    CAMAC crate electronics - Where were/are they used?

    Hi! I've done some research on the CAMAC standard of nuclear electronics - "It's like NIM but digital" - as I would like to acquire a bin and some modules for historic and scientific curiosity. I have never worked with the system, and I would like to get in touch with somebody who has. How...
  24. Boltzman Oscillation

    The important non-fundamental electrical components?

    Through my 2 analog classes and 2 electronics classes I have learned about resistors, inductors, capacitors, BJTs, Mosfets, and FETS. What are some other fundamental components that I should be taking a look at? To add to this, I don't consider gates as fundamental because they are built up from...
  25. J

    A Comprehensive "Map of Electronics Engineering"

    Summary:: I was wondering if there was a map of electronics engineering much like this does for physics (https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=ZihywtixUYo). I realize that looking at undergrad course outlines should give a decent picture of the field. However I am looking for a more comprehensive...
  26. J

    Engineering Sketching output waveforms while considering slew rate

    1. Using the frequency equation I know the time period is 1 millisecond. 2. The duty cycle (50%) equation tells me that the pulse width and the amplitude is 1 V. 3. Thus the input waveform looks like this : (?) 4. As the slew rate is 0.5 volts per microsecond, the output voltage would take...
  27. J

    Engineering Basic opamp design problem ##V_{output} = 3V_1 - 2V_2##

    Here I let ##R_2 = 2 ## kohms and ##R_1 = 1## kohms. Using this suggests that ##R_3 = 0## and ## R_4 = 1 ## kohms (?!) The resulting circuit is Is this the correct way to solve this? PS : I just realized that I have interchanged ##V_1## and ## V_2## in the diagram!
  28. Boltzman Oscillation

    Are ISFETS available for cheap or am I out of luck

    I was looking into measuring the ph levels of a lake nearby where I live. I wanted to tie the experiment to my electronics coursework so I did some reasearch and found the wonder electronic that is the ISFET. Unfortunately, I cannot find anywhere to buy an ISFET transistor; I can easily find...
  29. H

    Designing a DC Motor Torsional Spring Circuit with Arduino Uno

    I'm a relatively new entry into the world of electronics so my understanding of what is possible may not be an accurate one. In a nutshell, I would like to have a DC motor act as a torsional spring with some variable virtual spring constant (k). The motor, or "spring", would act against an...
  30. therealist

    How do I find the frequency, speed and direction of a wave

    Hey I am trying to learn how waves move in time and I am not sure how to solve the following question. Can someone please guide me through it.
  31. M

    How to calculate the efficiency of a switch mode power supply?

    I know how to calculate the power output and input by analyzing the current in put and output with multimeters and using the formula P=VI. But P_out is obviously incomparably smaller than P_in so the efficiency would suck this way. Is there a better way to do this??
  32. Boltzman Oscillation

    Engineering Help finding this node voltage

    I am given that all the BJTs are the same. First of all, when finding node voltages like Vref should I make the node voltage a voltage source first and then do circuit analysis? If so then I would use KVL but that does not give me Vref = 2Vbe. I do know that Vref = Vb1 = Vb2. What am I doing...
  33. snoopies622

    Coldness fixes electronics?

    This is more of a consumer question from someone who knows nothing about electronics: Last night my old Amazon Fire TV device apparently died, but after leaving it in the fridge all day it's now working again. What happened?
  34. Boltzman Oscillation

    Must a load consume the entire available current or only what it needs

    So if I have a source of 5V and 20 amp then the maximum power I can get from the source will be: $$ P_{max} = 5*20 = 100W$$ but my load can only take in 5 watts, it will blow up. But, does this have to happen or does my load only take what current it needs? My guess is that the load takes in...
  35. yakhassan

    I want to study electrical electronics but i don't know about it

    Summary:: I am a student and i plan to study electrical electronics but i don't know how to go about it.Anyone who is into it can you please guide me on how to become one I am a student and i plan to study electrical electronics but i don't know how to go about it.Anyone who is into it can you...
  36. AlphaLibrae

    Find the Thevenin's Equivalent for the following circuits

    I have actually already written out and solved for my own solutions to these problems, but I was wondering if I could get a second opinion on my solutions: For Problem 3: For Problem 4:
  37. Boltzman Oscillation

    Understanding Basic Electronics: A 9V Battery & Two 9V Bulbs

    Homework Statement:: How can I determine whether my basic circuit will work? A battery and two light sources. Homework Equations:: conceptual question, use basic ohms law, current law, voltage law, etc. This is not a homework question, i am just trying to understand electronics better. I am...
  38. S

    Electronics repair

    Hello, I am a student in mechanical engineering and also like electronics ( repairs and things like that ),i know electronics and how to build circuits,even embedded systems,but have no clue how to repair a circuit. I thought it'd be easy,but I soon found out that trying to fix pcbs isn't a...
  39. K

    Other Upper division undergraduate electronics and circuits textbooks

    Hello everyone, I am in an upper division undergraduate electronics and circuits class right now and the textbook that were using (Eggleston: basic electronics for scientists and engineers) is not resonating with me. I was wondering if anyone had recommendations for a textbook that explains...
  40. J

    Best place to find bulk old mixed up electronics components

    Hello, Anybody have any good sources of mixed up old electrical components? For example: an old drawer full of mixed up resistors and capacitors; wax caps and jumbled up stuff? I have a HUGE jar that I am trying to fill up with this type of thing for my lab and was just wondering if anybody...
  41. W

    How to find the current and voltage in a circuit with current sources?

    Summary: Facing a circuit with 2 parallel resistors and 2 current sources (1 dependent, 1 independent). Trying to find the current, voltage, power delivered by the independent current source and power delivered by the dependent current source. I'm trying to start by finding the current i0 but...
  42. C

    I How do I calculate the expected Gain?

    I am doing an experiment in electronics with AC RLC circuits, But there are a few things about what I need to do that I don't understand. First: While I know in the circuit diagram we include the internal resistance of the Inductor in series, but I don't know why we include it in series rather...
  43. J

    Engineering Calculating the gap of a parallel plate capacitor

    I've been given this question for my TMA2, I've tried looking at the learning material but it gives no information on how to calculate the gap? Does anyone have a formula for this? Or can someone point me in the right direction? Thanks
  44. R

    Tin Whisker (TW) growth in Electronics

    I am preparing a presentation on TW and have reviewed the NASA site which is good, but most of the data is at least 10 years old. Does anyone have any current data on TW mitigation? Here is the NASA link I used ►► https://nepp.nasa.gov/whisker/ Thanks, Ray
  45. dvscrobe

    Engineering Reverse Current PMDC Motor Braking Using Power Electronics

    Summary: How do you determine the armature current during the braking time? For a simple permanent magnet DC motor with a known resistance and inductance in series with the armature, I would like to know how to determine the armature current if there was an electronic motor drive controlling...
  46. og_ogun_srvs

    Current or Power Reference Tracking with Power Electronics Converters

    Hi. This is my first post. Thanks to all who give it a look. I am working on an application that has very stringent power output requirements. There is a rechargeable battery that I am trying to manage through a bi-directional boost/buck converter as is typical of many modern-day electric...
  47. M

    PNP transistor and Voltage

    The problem: My attempt:
  48. H

    Solid state electronics textbooks

    Summary: Please does anyone has a lecture note dat explain solid state electronic I need a lecture note or a textbook dat explain solid state electronic especially band gap Crystal growth Diffusion of semiconductor Fermini level
  49. D

    The 555 timers I use don't always generate pulses

    I have 3 555 timers. They don't always produce pulse. Sometimes They do. Sometimes they don't. Why don't they always produce pulses? I use electrolytic capacitors. There is nothing connected to the 5th pin.
  50. astroman707

    Studying What's the best way to apply the concepts learned in physics 2?

    I'm finishing up physics 2(intro E&M) at my college, and I'd like to apply the concepts I learned in it over the summer. I was considering working through an electronics book, or building a radio, etc. What kind of projects or books do you recommend to cement some of the topics I learned in a...