What is Circuitry: Definition and 47 Discussions

An electronic circuit is composed of individual electronic components, such as resistors, transistors, capacitors, inductors and diodes, connected by conductive wires or traces through which electric current can flow. To be referred to as electronic, rather than electrical, generally at least one active component must be present. The combination of components and wires allows various simple and complex operations to be performed: signals can be amplified, computations can be performed, and data can be moved from one place to another.Circuits can be constructed of discrete components connected by individual pieces of wire, but today it is much more common to create interconnections by photolithographic techniques on a laminated substrate (a printed circuit board or PCB) and solder the components to these interconnections to create a finished circuit. In an integrated circuit or IC, the components and interconnections are formed on the same substrate, typically a semiconductor such as doped silicon or (less commonly) gallium arsenide.An electronic circuit can usually be categorized as an analog circuit, a digital circuit, or a mixed-signal circuit (a combination of analog circuits and digital circuits). The most widely used semiconductor device in electronic circuits is the MOSFET (metal-oxide-semiconductor field-effect transistor).Breadboards, perfboards, and stripboards are common for testing new designs. They allow the designer to make quick changes to the circuit during development.

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  1. G

    Electric chain hoist: need help with control circuitry

    I have been given an electrical chain hoist to repair. The symptom is that it suddenly stopped working. I have checked the motor's windings and they each show similar DC resistance of 0.0018 ohms. I have attached the schematic (dunno why it was rotated 90 degrees during the upload). The hoist...
  2. P

    Engineering Analyzing the internal circuitry of IC 741 Op-Amp step by step

    Here is the internal circuit of a 741 op-amp - Here is a HSpice model I found in the educational section - Both are essentially the same, keeping aside subtle differences. I am yet to understand the technicalities of an op-amp, so I would like to analyze the circuit using the first picture...
  3. B

    I want a temperature controller for a 12V, 40W ceramic cartridge heater

    Dear friends, I am in a search of a temperature controller for 12V, 40W ceramic cartridge heater! I can not change the heater because of my application. I want to purchase a simple PID temperature controller available in the market. But I am not sure whether they can provide me the 12V output...
  4. L

    How Is Converted Electrical Energy Stored and Utilized?

    Hello, I am interested in the circuitry of energy conversion, such as solar, thermal, etc. How does the converted electrical energy get stored, for example, do they use supercapacitors? How does it then get applied for general use? Do you have any documentation or circuit diagrams for this?
  5. B

    How Does Gauss' Law Apply to Currents in Electric Fields and Circuitry?

    I am designing a device, which will utilize an electric field. The question I have run into is whether or not the current is treated as the charge enclosed for Gauss' Law, or if there's another way I would calculate it. Also, am I correct that the voltage of the circuit would be different than...
  6. Likith D

    Does Adjusting Potentiometer Resistance Affect Volume in Amplification Circuits?

    The above is a circuit i found on the net regarding amplification of volume. I needed to know if increasing the potentiometer resistance (between "cold" and "wiper"; terminal 1 and 2?) in the circuit would increase "volume" Also, i could use a potentiometer resistance ( between "cold" and...
  7. J

    Making a temperature controlled heating element

    I'm considering making a plastic melter / extruder for making my own 3D printer filament as opposed to buying the spools of it. The basics of the project are simple, but the hard part (for me at least) is making a heating element that has a control on it so that I can turn the heat up or down...
  8. J

    Making a 12-24v DC variable power supply

    Homework Statement So, for a school project I have to make a resistance soldering iron. As far as I know, this requires a high current going through high resistance wire (such as stainless steel in my case). I need to make this run from a standard 120v 15A wall outlet. I have figured out so far...
  9. K

    Changing circuitry of analog computer *During* simulations?

    I am wondering whether it would be possible for the analog circuitry itself to change DURING the time an analog computer does computations. Over and above the above mentioned question, is it possible that the circuitry itself can change DURING simulations, while this change in the circuitry is...
  10. L

    Electric circuitry, confusion about the electric charge

    Homework Statement car's battery has voltage (E) 11,5 volts and internal resistance of 0,040 ohms. battery's charge is 20 amperehours (20 Ah) How many ignition attempts of the car can be made, when the charge can be allowed to fall to 15 amperehours. One attempt of at engine ignition...
  11. Z

    Circuitry Basics: Understanding Electric Potential Difference and Voltage

    I have a number of questions on how circuits really function - my class just found itself looking at circuit diagrams and voltages without any explanation of the basics of how circuits actually work. 1) How does the concept of electric potential difference between two points, like with a point...
  12. 1rel

    TFT LCD Display - where is the circuitry?

    Today, I've been looking into TFT LCD display tech for a bit, trying to figure out how pixels are actually colored on the screen. - A) Out of necessity, because I'm trying to build a small ARM microcontroller powered board with a display on it. B) And out of curiosity, because I don't really...
  13. remorris44

    Grounding wire in household circuitry?

    Hi guys, I know this sounds crazy but I do not understand why household circuits are grounded. It is this grounding that causes more harm than good in my opinion. I understand the need for it, e.g. if your washing machine's hot wire shakes loose and contacts the housing and it weren't...
  14. G

    Center Frequency and Bandwith of Bandpass Filter?

    Homework Statement Determine the center frequency and bandwidth of the bandpass filter. Homework Equations center frequency of bandpass filter = ωc occurs when the magnitude of H = 1 H = V0/Vs Center frequency occurs when Im(Z) = 0 Zc = 1/(jωC) = 1/s ZL = jωL ZR = R I don't know a formula...
  15. G

    Superposition Principle to Solve Circuit

    Homework Statement Homework Equations KVL: ΣV = 0 KCL: ΣI = 0 v = iR The Attempt at a Solution I started by removing the independent current source to leave an open circuit. Then I attempted nodal analysis at nodes v1, v2, and v3: KCL @ v1: (v1 - v2)/10 = v1/40 KCL @ v2: (v2 - v1)/10 -...
  16. G

    Using Superposition and Linearity to Find Current?

    Homework Statement Homework Equations Ohm's Law: v = iR KVL: ∑ V = 0 KCL: ∑ I = 0 Linearity: kiR = kvThe Attempt at a Solution Okay, so to apply superposition, I'm supposed to turn off all independent sources except one. I began by turning off the voltage source, and I then I used KCL to...
  17. Hijaz Aslam

    Working around with Electric Circuitry.

    Though I understand the basic combinations of resistors, emf and capacitors, both in parallel and series, complex circuitry questions always baffles me. I would like to know what are the key points? I mean important points to be kept in mind. What are the common mistakes? What are certain tricks...
  18. C

    Looking for some information on the limits of copper circuitry

    Hi there, I'll try my best to be descriptive. I'm looking for as much information as possible on the limits on current technologies in producing copper circuitry. I had a nice conversation the other day with a member of my research group and he was telling me about the demand for the ability...
  19. S

    Engineering Beginner Circuitry Analysis - Assistance Appreciated =)

    I'm given that i1=5.4A and i2=1.5A. I know that I need to apply mesh-current and then nodal-voltage analysis, but I have never dealt with two current sources. It seems like however I set it up, I am missing a piece. My first attempt at a KVL equation using mesh analysis incorrectly...
  20. jegues

    DC-DC Converter for Gate Driver Circuitry (Electric Motorcycle)

    Evening all, I'm trying to pick out a suitable DC-DC Converter for our low power gate driver circuitry and I'm unsure about a number of different things. First some background on the circuitry and what the DC-DC Converter is needed for. To date, we've designed, built and tested a low...
  21. F

    Powering Digital Circuitry From SMPS

    I was thinking of powering a microcontroller directly from a buck-boost converter, but after doing a few calculations I ran into the following problems: Ringing when switching on/off Current rise time You can get the ringing down with a snubber. The current rise time however is a big...
  22. B

    Engineering Question about vehicle tachometer circuitry

    Hi,dear engineer fellas. Here is my query : We are team of students who compete in international FSAE competition-that is,we are making a racing car if you will.The engine is motorcycle engine. Our team is responsible of the different circuitry . Funny stuff is,we are all mechanical engineers...
  23. Tesladude

    Amplifier Circuitry w/ LM4780 IC: Adjust Output w/ Potentiometer?

    I am making an amplifier with 2 lm4780 ic The gain is set by a resistor between the output and negative,I want to use a potenciometer to be able to adjust this, so my question is: will lowering the ohms lower the output or will increase the output or what?
  24. K

    Engineering Acquiring negative voltages in real life circuitry?

    Homework Statement I'm working on a project for my circuit analysis class in which we designed a circuit that involves a wheatstone bridge, takes the voltage difference and then amplifies it to a useable level. I am past that phase of the design, I have a working circuit for that on a...
  25. M

    How do I connect a variable capacitor to an inductor in a crystal radio circuit?

    Typical VC: http://goo.gl/Z4Dbg I have that guy there or one very similar. My question is how does one hook this up to the inductor? Forget, for now, the rest of the circuit. How do these two piece fit together? The bottom feet (there are two on each side) I assume take the positive...
  26. D

    Physical CPU Circuitry Referencing Memory

    How does a CPU send information to memory locations - physically? I know in software you can reference memory locations. I'd like to know how a CPU references them? I understand that it symbolizes a memory location using bits (00000101 = 5) but - how does that string of bits work in the...
  27. Simfish

    Remapping Computer Circuitry to Avert Impending Bottlenecks

    http://www.nytimes.com/2011/03/01/science/01compute.html?_r=1&pagewanted=print So - a question. Once this infrastructure is in place, do we have to revise all the algorithms we use? Just as we have to revise all of our algorithms when we're programming for parallel processors?
  28. J

    CPU has built-in circuitry to do simple arithmetic operations

    Hi I'm a layman so please keep your reply as simple as possible. Thanks. They say that a CPU has built-in circuitry to do simple arithmetic operations such as addition, subtraction, etc. and logical operation such as greater than, less than, etc. I don't understand how could some...
  29. M

    Superconducting circuitry and the tank circuit

    howdy, I have never worked with superconductive circuitry, nor do I know of it's use much past MRI machines with large coils and in its research for transmission lines. What if you were to make a superconducting capacitor, and place it in parallel with a superconducting coil to make a...
  30. G

    Help on Constructing a Circuit with 205VDC to 12VDC

    Hi Everyone, I am trying of constructing a circuit but i do not have much electrical knowledge to put me through this. I hope someone here could provide some advice for me. Here it is: I have a circuit that is powered up by 230VAC (main). I am trying to tap a voltage (205vdc) somewhere...
  31. H

    Changing Frequency of AC Power Supply: Circuitry vs Generation

    Can anyone tell me what the most standard way of changing the frequency of an AC power supply is? Can it be done with circuitry or does the method of generation need to be set at the desired frequency?
  32. V

    Circuitry Question: Solve Unknowns V1, V2, V3, i1, i2, i3, i4

    Homework Statement http://i967.photobucket.com/albums/ae152/timmy_064/circuitryprob.jpg2. Instructions: Find the unknowns : V1, V2, V3, i1, i2, i3, i4 i wasn't able to solve this problem due to the circuit containing 2 batteries. its confusing. can someone help me. please. thanks. EDIT: Since...
  33. S

    (this is not homework) Eletronics and circuitry for dummies.

    Hello everyone, this isn't homework so I figured I'd post it here. I want to learn basic electronics, I mean, being able to move cables and diodes around is not only interesting but useful, I've seen a few diagrams on how to build certain types of guitar/bass pedals and/or amps and such and...
  34. Topher925

    Design of precision circuitry?

    Design of precision circuitry? I'm currently working on a circuit that is so sensitive that if I even so much as breath on it for just a moment, it becomes completely useless as my signal will become completely saturated. While the circuit works very well (when I'm not breathing on it), even...
  35. P

    Need help with rail-gun ( capacitor circuitry and specification questions)

    Hello everyone, I’m a first time poster here on the PF and I come to you, the community to help me and my team-mate in a little project we’re doing. We’re building a rail-gun and we’ve now encountered quite a few problems. I’ll try to make my questions as simple as possible for easy...
  36. S

    Which Circuit Drains Batteries Faster: Series or Parallel?

    if i used batteries instead of a power source which circuit (series or parallel) would drain the batteries faster and why THank you.
  37. M

    Will Increasing the Voltage Affect the Functionality of My Circuit?

    I want to modify a circuit by adding a stronger drive motor. The circuit is a PCB receiver which is attached to two motors, one which steers a car, one which drives a car. The previous drive motor needed 2 x 1.5v batteries. The new drive motor needs a 12V lead acid battery. This means...
  38. N

    Power Analysis of an Unknown Device in a Series AC Circuit Setup

    hi, I am wondering if anyone can answer this question of the following circuit setup, thanks: an AC source connected parallel to a volt meter, together in series with an ampmeter, then series with some sort of device. No numbers are given. Volt and Amp meters are both ideal. What is the...
  39. W

    This is not a h/w question circuitry problem

    Ok this is a practice problem for the upcoming SAT physics subject test. I was unable to do much... If point A was connected with point C, what would happen in the circuit? Can you please give a description involving the total current, the current and the voltage across each juncture, and...
  40. W

    How can I vary the strength and direction of an electromagnet circuit?

    I'm a mechanical engineering student but I'm tasked to do up a electromagnet circuit..any help willl be greatly appreciated! I need to be able to vary the strength and direction of the field of the electromagnet. I have absolutely no idea how to go about doing this because i almost never...
  41. D

    How Does Electron Deflection Occur in a Charged Plate Setup?

    Electrons traveling in a circular path of a radius 2m at a rate of 1.0*10^6 revolutions per second are diverting into a region between two charged plates iwth a potential difference of 40V. These plates are 3.2cm long and are separated by 8mm. As the electrons emerge from the region between...
  42. A

    Sensor Circuitry Malfunction on Shuttle: What Went Wrong?

    Does anyone know what technically went wrong in the sensor circuitry on board the shuttle. All I know is the liquid H2 sensor shuts off the external booster when the fuel becomes critically low. During the pre-launch test the sensor indicated the booster was low on fuel, however the tank was...
  43. C

    How Do AC Circuit Reactances Compare to DC Resistances?

    After everyone in our class got less than 50% on our first physics test this term, (AC, magnetic flux, frequency/oscillations), our teacher decided to give us a retest. Though, he hasn't gone over anything else, so i thought i'd ask a couple questions here. 1. I was taught that Inductive...
  44. F

    The Basics of Power & Circuitry: An Explanation for Laypeople

    I'm having difficulties understanding the concept of power and how you generate it in a circuit. Mainly I'm uncertain about how electrical energy can be used to produce power and what are the conditions for producing it (are resistors required?) Would someone be so kinda as to give me an anaolgy...
  45. R

    Smart Bombs: Exploring Physics & Circuitry

    I am doing a school project on the physics involved in smart bombs. I really need some information on what types of circuits they use. Also, any information on the ways in which they transmit their data would be helpful.
  46. cytokinesis

    Why Do I Get Different Values for I2 in My Circuit Calculation?

    I'm going to feel kinda dumb once the answer to this question is revealed. But I can't seem to get the proper answer. The question is: What are the values of I1, I2, and I3 in the circuit? The ciruit looks like this: 20.0V I=positive terminal |-------I|-------| |...
  47. wasteofo2

    Books on the physics of sound and electrical circuitry.

    I am a sophmore in high school and I work as a lifeguard over the summer, and a great deal of my time is spent sitting around doing nothing when the weather isn't ideal. I haven't taken physics yet, but I play guitar and I'm heavily into modifying it to get the best tone possible. Through...