# What is Digital: Definition and 491 Discussions

Digital electronics is a field of electronics involving the study of digital signals and the engineering of devices that use or produce them. This is in contrast to analog electronics and analog signals.
Digital electronic circuits are usually made from large assemblies of logic gates, often packaged in integrated circuits. Complex devices may have simple electronic representations of Boolean logic functions.

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1. ### Welcome to try my digital designs

Hi everyone, Digital design is also my interest. I have two works: 1. Photonico Code This is a slab serif font designed for coding, which supports Latin, Greek letters, and mathematical notations. Link: https://github.com/Photonico/Photonico_Code Preview: 2. Photonica This is a set of VSCode...
2. ### I Making Sense of Notation Confusion in Statistical Digital Signal Processing

I started my research in statistical digital signal processing two years ago, so I need to familiarize myself with all the notations people use in probability and statistics. I come from a deterministic science background. I name my variables based on what they mean. A velocity is a v , a...

4. ### Comp Sci Digital Logic 8 Bit Full Adder Circuit

I am unsure of how to approach this problem, we begin with two 8-bit full adders, is the goal to just combine them in some way so that it becomes one entire circuit while also adding NAND and NOR gates where necessary? By the end will we then have 16 1-bit full adders?
5. ### Optimizing a digital assistant to behave how I want it to?

Hello. I know some companies have digital assistants like Microsoft's Cortana or Apple's Siri. I don't know how they work but I know that they are based on AI. I have never used them, and I don't know about AI (okay, it is one of the most popular topics today). Can those assitants be optimized...

Hi, Both NAND and NOR are considered to be universal gates. For example, NAND gates can be used in combination to perform the AND, OR, and inverter operations. The same could be said of NOR gate. Then, why the digital electronics section of electronics textbooks almost always start with the...
7. ### Looking for a digital copy of the Table of Radioactive Isotopes

Hello all, I am looking to get an electronic copy of the Table of Radioactive Isotopes by Edgardo Browne and Richard B. Firestone. I know that we can run software that incorporates this database here: https://www2.lbl.gov/LBL-Programs/Gamquest.html , but I am looking for an electronic copy to...
8. ### Analog to digital signal converter in digital cameras

I am reading How computers work and I don’t grasp it. So how is light ultimately get transformed into a beautiful picture on screen in a digital camera? I have got D5200 Nikon. It’s a nice begineers camera.
9. ### B How to calculate size of objects in digital photo

Please move to a better forum if available. We have two friends discussing their photography efforts. "you know that your photo of people with large one-inch square buttons on their coats will not look accurate," said Moe. "Why is that," asked Curly. Moe answered, "You have the model...
10. ### Engineering Digital Communications: Bit Error Rate (BER), C/N, Constellations

Problem Statement: I am not quite sure how to approach this problem and would appreciate the help. I how the C/N is closely related to the SNR (Eb/N0), but the question does not give the bandwidth or data rate for me to use the formula above. From the constellation diagram, my guess is this is...
11. ### Comp Sci How does a washing machine make use of digital electronics?

I know what Boolean algebra and logic gates are, but I am having a hard time to describe how washing machines operate on digital electronics. Here's my attempt 'Washing machine have various functions like different cycle settings for various temperatures or cycle duration, or a delayed start...
12. ### Optical versus digital reflections

This is allegedly (part of) a bona fide photo of a critter, staring at its own reflection in the water. I am skeptical. I am almost certain that the highlight in the reflected image is provably digitally reflected. To-wit: If the virtual image in the water were a true reflection off the water...
13. ### Digital Filters: why is sampling frequency equal to 2*pi unit circle

Hi, I was working through a filter design problem and got stuck on a concept. Scenario: Let us say we have the following pulse transfer function and the sampling frequency is ## f_s = 50 \text{Hz} ##. G(z) = \frac{1}{3} \left( 1 + z^{-1} + z^{-2} \right) The zeros of the transfer function...
14. ### How Do You Get From 1's and 0's to complex software and digital info?

How do simple Architectural basic computing binary code signaling create a diversity of information and software properties from information signals of existence (=1's) and non-existence (=0's)? After reading some Theoritical and Analytical Science papers recently about the debate on...
15. ### Engineering Simplification of a digital circuit

I am trying to solve this problem I have solved this myself in two different ways, but i am getting different results. Solution # 1 Solution # 2 Now to find : Please see output is different in solution#1 and solution#2. Which solution is correct ? Is there anything I am missing.
16. ### 3D Printing and "Watertight" Digital Models

Hello, I understand that CAD models (stl files) suitable for 3D printing must be "watertight" and not leaky in the polygon mesh. By analogy, if we filled the model with water, the water would not leak...This concept of watertightness means that there are no unintentional holes between the...
17. ### Measuring Reflectance with a Digital Camera

Background: This fall our initial plan will have high school students on campus 1 day per week and working remotely for the remainder of the week. I'm trying to plan for some at-home labs and projects. I came across http://albedodreams.info/how_to/how-to-calculate-albedo-yourself/ site which...
18. ### Discovering Digital Twin: Experiences and Resources

So I was wondering what experience you guys have in working with Digital twins? I am currently researching for my graduation project, which is about digital twin. When looking for litterature about digital twin, the amount available is somewhat limited. So what I'm basicly asking you guys...
19. ### The important non-fundamental electrical components?

Through my 2 analog classes and 2 electronics classes I have learned about resistors, inductors, capacitors, BJTs, Mosfets, and FETS. What are some other fundamental components that I should be taking a look at? To add to this, I don't consider gates as fundamental because they are built up from...
20. ### Engineering Digital and analogue electronic

I don’t know how to sketch so I really need help

I received an email notice a few days ago from ACM (Association of Computing Machinery) that their Digital Library will be free thru June 30, 2020. Sounds like a deal to me! Cheers, Tom
22. ### Tinkercard Digital object and 3D printing

Hello, When creating a curved object in Tinkercad, something like a sphere, the spheres' surface does not look very smooth but rather meshy under close inspection. Will the 3D printed version of that sphere designed in Tinkercad have a smoother surface than the meshy surface it has in the...
23. ### How do you make a digital counter circuit which counts to 10 minutes?

I need to make a digital counter circuit which it counts to 15 minutes for my big project in my campus . When the circuit counts to 10 minutes, it will rings a buzzer. Same when it continues to 15 minutes, it will ring a buzzer again. (the circuit is for public speaking, so the speaker knows...
24. ### Engineering What is a 3-bit Digital to Analogue Converter and How Does it Work?

There is an example of a two bit DAC in the notes but not a three bit DAC. Three digital inputs results in 8 analogue outputs: 23 = 8 Digital Inputs_________Analogue Outputs CBA 000____________________0 001____________________1/12 x 24 = 2 V 010____________________2/12 x 24 = 4 V...
25. ### FRR Measurement in Digital Oscilloscope

Hello, This is my first post in this domain and I am fairly novice in this subject, so please bear with me. I have a GDS-20174A Digital Oscilloscope. I am trying to measure the delay between two BNC cables using a Square Pulse of 2V with an offset of 1 V using the oscilloscope. I am using...
26. ### Digital signal exercise (Manolakis)

Hello people, I hope someone can help me with this exercise. This exercise is taken from the book "Applied Digital Signal Processing: Theory and Practice" by manolakis and Ingle. I don't understand what is being asked. The only thing I understand is that I have to use MATLAB necessarily. Someone...
27. ### Convert VCR analog TV output to digital TV input

I have an old VCR and a library of video tape recordings I have not played for quite a few years. The output of the VCR is the old analog Channel 3 TV signal which fed into the aerial input of the old analog TV. I now have a digital TV and there is no Channel 3. There is instead, for example, a...
28. ### Gibbs phenomenon caused by digital signal processing?

Hi, I'm an electrical engineer for a few years now, but it's been a while since I had to deal with this kind of stuff, I turned out to become mostly a programmer in the end, but i was thinking: is Gibbs phenomenon, which was demonstrated to me during my studies while working on Fourier series...
29. ### Studying Learning calculus with a digital copy of a textbook

Hi, I'm in 12 grade, and I always was a decent student but recently I became more fascinated by learning and I want to learn some math and physics beyond high school level. One or two weeks ago I started the calculus course on mit ocw (18.01sc) (at session 17 right now, right before lecture 7)...
30. ### Problem understanding a parameter in a digital filter

Homework Statement Digital causal recursive filter is a part of a digital signal processing system which has sampling frequency ##fs = 1200Hz## and is given by a differece equation: where ##r = 0.9## and ##θ## is such that it filters out the spectral components at ##f = 200Hz## Find ##H(z)##...
31. ### How does a digital multimeter measure conductance?

Preface to thread: Back in October I created a thread titled "How does a digital ammeter work?" That thread was about how digital ammeters measure current. The purpose of this thread is to learn how digital multimeters measure conductance, not voltage. This is a separate issue for 2 reasons...
32. ### How Do Digital Compasses in Watches Measure Direction?

Hi. I am curious to know how a digital compass in wristwatches works. How do they get the direction of the Earth magnetic field? I know the coils can measure the value,but how does they get the direction? Casio's site explain like this: "The magnetic field of the Earth is a complex network of...
33. ### How Can I Record a Raw Analog Signal with an Arduino Using a Circuit Board?

Greetings. I have a system that is powered by 5V . You will see below in the image. The system displays the difference between the Hi and Lo signal digitally, on the display which the board is plugged into. However. I want to store the data maybe in a SD card? Using Arduino? How do I harness the...
34. ### How does a digital ammeter work?

I am a student at a trade school, majoring in HVAC. My electricity for HVAC textbook has a chapter on electric meters. However, my textbook does a poor job of explaining how a digital ammeter works. My textbook has the following description of how digital ammeters work: "To make meters...
35. ### Nyquist theorem & collecting digital values

I have a digital transmitter from which I collect and save values from. How do I know if I must apply this theorem or not? My values seems fine..
36. ### I Looking for a cheap digital scale with accuracy <1 g

I currently have a cheap digital scale that will measure, say, from 1 g and beyond to the hundredth place with reasonable accuracy, but for anything less than a gram, it is erratic. For example, when I'm adding 0.15 g of a chemical, sometimes the value will change but often it will not and...
37. ### Length of time needed to measure digital clock accuracy

On a piece of equipment, I purchased new, the digital clock ran slow. The second digital clock that was installed ran slow---it lost approximately 4.1 minutes in one month. Below is what I sent the Service Manager who I understand thinks it is possible to test the newly installed clock...
38. ### B Can Digital Radios Tune Without Moving Parts?

I get how analog ones with knobs tune by physically changing length of elements to match the frequency, but what about the ones that just have a screen and you type in what frequency you want?
39. ### Digital Transparent Glass; what's its name?

Hi. I need to know the name of the transparent glass which can display objects like Line, Circle, Numbers, or maybe my name. Thanks!
40. ### B Extracting Spectra from Sloan Digital Sky Survey Data Releases 13 and 14

Hello, What are the quasar observation criteria by GAIA and SDSS(what are the condition used by SDSS to define an observed object as a quasar), why some brilliant objects are observed by SDSS and not by GAIA? thanks

Hi guys, I'm wanting to test materials developed in CAD software for their radiation blocking qualities (EM Spectrum), I would ideally need to use a software where I can set the wavelength and frequency of the emitter and set up a receiver, allowing me to place different materials in the middle...
42. ### Analog Computers: Digital vs. Theoretical Possibilities

There are two types of 'reading'. Digital and analog. There are digital computers, which function with 'on' and 'off' data. But can it possible to construct an analog computer? Can it be theoretically possible?
43. ### Energy consumed in a digital circuit

I have a digital circuit , to find the energy consumed by the circuit, I am monitoring the current drawn from the supply and integrating it to get the charge pumped into the circuit ... and the total charge*V supposed to give me total energy consumed by the circuit. But I am getting a small...
44. ### Noise Modelling - Digital communication systems

Hi all, Teacher here looking for some guidance. I'm teaching a class that I took myself a few years back, and I'm looking at my solution to a problem but I have a random value in my answer (which I know to be correct) but I can't for the life of me remember where this value came from! Can anyone...
45. ### Difference between Analog and Digital Pins on my Arduino Board

I wanted to ask what the difference between analog and digital pins is on my Arduino (or any other board). I have been using both but don't really know what the difference is. Thanks!
46. ### Conditional Digital Feedback; is it a good Idea? (Neural Networks)

In this example: The input multiplier to the artificial neural network, at the bottom of the screen, for each note is determined by an output of an Expectation Maxamazation sequence that converges after ten iterations with input of the artificial neural network's output above a threshhold...
47. ### Hillbilly Fractal Antenna Reflector (and digital TV antenna suggestions)

So the quality of my over-the-air digital TV reception has been getting worse over the past few months. Probably the digital TV antenna that I'm using is getting old and starting to degrade. Last night I resorted to trying different reflector combinations to try to boost the signal for the...
48. D

### Help intagrating hertzmeter into analog linear power supply

First off I'm not an engineer nor do I have a electronics background. I have an old Linear (HP 6284A Power Supply). I would like to be able to display Hz/CPS. I need to measure the speed of a tattoo machine. (basically two coils that make and break connection through out its use. From what...
49. ### Monitoring a 24 kHz frequency, logging a digital dB reading

Hi, I had a project in mind but I'm not sure its possible, or what I might need. Current Setup: A small loop antenna monitors a 24kHz (VLF) radio signal, and passes it to an amplifier (schematic can be found here: https://www.physicsforums.com/threads/schematic-symbol-help-supersid.709128/)...
50. ### MOSFET not working with digital input gate signal, Help please

Ok, so i have a picaxe microcontroller putting out a pwm signal to the gate of an irlb3034 "logic level" n-channel mosfet. The mosfet is for grounding on and off about 8v of 20 to 40 amps. When i take my circuit and jump 8v directly to the gate of my mosfet everything works perfectly...