What is Coding: Definition and 176 Discussions

Coding theory is the study of the properties of codes and their respective fitness for specific applications. Codes are used for data compression, cryptography, error detection and correction, data transmission and data storage. Codes are studied by various scientific disciplines—such as information theory, electrical engineering, mathematics, linguistics, and computer science—for the purpose of designing efficient and reliable data transmission methods. This typically involves the removal of redundancy and the correction or detection of errors in the transmitted data.
There are four types of coding:
Data compression (or source coding)
Error control (or channel coding)
Cryptographic coding
Line codingData compression attempts to remove redundancy from the data from a source in order to transmit it more efficiently. For example, ZIP data compression makes data files smaller, for purposes such as to reduce Internet traffic. Data compression and error correction may be studied in combination.
Error correction adds extra data bits to make the transmission of data more robust to disturbances present on the transmission channel. The ordinary user may not be aware of many applications using error correction. A typical music compact disc (CD) uses the Reed–Solomon code to correct for scratches and dust. In this application the transmission channel is the CD itself. Cell phones also use coding techniques to correct for the fading and noise of high frequency radio transmission. Data modems, telephone transmissions, and the NASA Deep Space Network all employ channel coding techniques to get the bits through, for example the turbo code and LDPC codes.

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  1. TR094

    Other How much coding do I need to learn when becoming a nuclear physicist?

    I'm currently in high school and in the future I want to become a nuclear physicist. I'm not really into coding in general and I worry that would be a bad thing. I'm more on wanting to do lab work. I know I don't really have to worry about this now but it's good to know now for the future so I...
  2. starryexplorer

    I Obtaining Transit Spectrum for Celestial Bodies Using JWST NIRSPEC

    I've recently been tasked with obtaining transit spectrum data for some fascinating celestial bodies, including Ceres, Enceladus, Ganymede, Io, and Titan. The goal is to compare their transit spectra with that of Earth. However, I'm facing a bit of a challenge when it comes to using the Github...
  3. S

    Curious learner, Currently a home maker

    Hi there, my name is Sindhuja. I am a home maker and I am going to start my PhD in Computer Science soon. To prepare myself for the upcoming challenges, I am currently revisiting my undergraduate math concepts. I have always been a curious learner, someone who is keen on understanding things...
  4. Zalokin

    B Understanding Physics for Coding Collision of 2 Balls

    Hi There! I am quite a beginner at physics and my aim is to apply physics to a computer program which I'm coding. The program consists of 2 balls of equal mass colliding into each other and demonstrating the trajectories after an elastic collision. I have already coded a more basic model...
  5. Eclair_de_XII

    Is it normal for a student to get frustrated learning a coding language?

    ... after many failed attempts at figuring it out? Is it normal for him to soon after declare himself done trying to figure out the solution and the language, only to return to it after only a short period of distancing himself from it by a short walk or some number of hours goofing off? Is it...
  6. kyphysics

    Coding Bootcamps - Can Anyone be a Six-Figure Coder?

    My cousin, who graduated with a degree in economics and minored in psychology, quit his overseas English teaching job, went to a coding bootcamp (I believe it was just a few months long), and became a computer programmer/coder with a $160,000 salary (NYC). He's encouraged me to do it (I work...
  7. V

    Creating a Double Precision Matlab Function from Scratch

    I am confused at how to code this without using any of matlab's already built in functions except for using double. Is this question just asking me to write out the function and then make sure it's double precision?
  8. raminee

    Combinations Formulae & Mapping to Index Values

    The Combinations formulae will find the number of possible combinations that can be obtained by taking a sample of items from a larger set. C = n! / [r! * (n-r)! ] Where n is the number of set samples and r is the number of desired selected samples. So as an example say we have n=5...
  9. M

    Comp Sci Interrupts on pic18f452 not shooting in mplab X, help? C language

    I am using MPLAB X, everything is working great when I work on examples that require smaller or no preload at all, I do not understand why that is the case, is there a limit to the TMR0L? Hello please help asap, my specific case I have: 4MHz crystal -----> 1 / (4MHz / 4) = 1MHz timer I...
  10. Eclair_de_XII

    Job Skills Is a formal education usually mandatory to land a coding job?

    Suppose the applicant has had absolutely no formal education in systems administration or computer science, but has demonstrated coding experience demonstrating his aptitude for both. Would his application be redirected to the physical equivalent of /dev/null the moment that human resources...
  11. Jarvis323

    Tesla's Vortex (Mathologer Coding Competition)

    Mathologer made a cool video recently about "Tesla's Vortex", or rather a cool method of generating patterns using repeated multiplication and modulus to generate repeating sequences, and then plotting those sequences around a circle. This creates cardiods and other related patterns, a different...
  12. W

    Coding of Spin Spin correlation function

    I tried to code spinoperators who act like $S_x^iS_x^j$ (y and z too) and to apply them to the states, which works fine. I am not sure about how to code the expectation value in the product Space. Has anyone pseudo Code to demonstrate that?
  13. person123

    LaTeX LaTex to Work With Symbolic Expressions

    For many of the problems in my engineering courses (as well as other STEM courses and maybe even in industry), much of the work is in algebraic manipulation of equations. These problems could be solved using by using symbolic expressions in a coding language like MATLAB. However, it is very...
  14. P

    RNA coding sequence for proteins

    Simplistic Example Given - DNA - RNA AATGTA codes for a protein. 1. Does the inverse ATGTAA usually/ever code for a protein? 2. Does the reciprocal RNA TTACAT usually/ever code for a protein?
  15. SamRoss

    Good website to ask coding questions?

    I am trying to learn how to code, reading the info on w3schools, doing Google searches, etc. I recently ran into a small problem with MySQL and wanted to find a good website where I could post the issue I was having and see if anyone had any suggestions. I love PhysicsForums but I'm not sure...
  16. Ugnius

    Comp Sci Octave coding -- solving a quadratic equation and then using the roots

    Hi , I had to solve a quadratic equation , i got two roots as an answer ( ans= x1 / x2) , and now i need to use one of those answers to complete further tasks like finding y from x+y=c so i need to use x1 and x2 from roots , i was wondering if that's possible and how
  17. J

    Matlab coding issue with solving PDEs

    FTCS scheme My Matlab code: %Problem 3 %Solve diffusion problem using Richardson scheme or DuFort-Frankel scheme clear all; scheme = menu('Choose method of solving diffusion equation:', 'Richardson', 'DuFort-Frankel'); tau = input('Enter time step: '); N = input('Enter the number of grid...
  18. F

    Python Problem with coding the band structure of graphene nanoribbons

    Hi, I have a Matlab code for calculating the band structure of graphene nanoribbon which is working fine, but I wanted to convert it to python and I've done it. I guess I made a mistake somewhere because the plot is totally wrong. Could someone check it for me, please?
  19. S

    Advice for overcoming insurmountable coding tasks?

    I've joined a group which studies cold atoms a little over two months ago. I was asked to write a Markov Chain Monte Carlo script, which I did, and which turned out really promising. I've been programming in Python for almost a year now so this wasn't too difficult to do. Shortly thereafter, the...
  20. A

    Comp Sci Creating Huffman Tree with Coding Frequency

    First, I get the string and I find the frequency of the every character. My struct is: typedef struct huffman_tree{ char c; int freq; //unsigned? struct huffman_tree *left; // 0 (left) struct huffman_tree *right; // 1 (right) }huffman_tree; I write this to create Huffman tree...
  21. S

    How to Catch and Print Assertion Errors in Python

    I would like to make output only read: Traceback (most recent call last): AssertionError ... without giving the File "<input>", line 1, in <module>
  22. Mikkel

    Python Numerical modeling of a glacier's length -- Coding error(s)

    Hey Physics Forum I am currently doing my bachelor project in geophysics, with focus on the evolution of glaciers in Greenland. My project consists partly of programming, because I want to get better at it. I have, however, hit a wall. I can't seem to figure out what is wrong with my code and I...
  23. Monsterboy

    Comp Sci Counting Valleys // Complete the countingValleys function below.

    // Complete the countingValleys function below. // The code is in javaScript function countingValleys(n, s) { let currentLevel = [] // an array of numbers that indicate the number of units of altitude above or below sea level regarding each step let altitude = 0 // the...
  24. antoniacarol

    How can I fix a ValueError when trying to terminate a while loop in Python?

    Please help! I am trying to create a Python program for an assignment that will convert Celsius to Fahrenheit and vice versa depending on the input from the user. The numeric conversion portion of the code is working, however, if the user inputs "exit" the while loop is supposed to terminate...
  25. P

    Decoding Miller Code: Understanding the High and Low Signals

    Hello, I have some questions about the Miller Code. So I googled something and found some helpful pictures. See, for example, Figure 1: My first question on picture 1 is, why is 0 set to high in the first signal (I marked this with a red question mark)? With the second signal in the first...
  26. S

    Python: printing every other input using a for loop

    I want my output to read only the integers. Here's my attempt: number = int(input()) for i in range(2, number+1, 2): print(input())
  27. Vick

    Coding Riemann (0,4) Equation in Python - Help Needed!

    Hi, I've coded Riemann tensor in python successfully. However, I recently stumbled onto another Riemann equation for the valence (0,4) as shown in the following link: Riemann (0,4) I'm having troubled coding the last part after the partial derivatives and the plus sign. Can anyone help me? Thanks
  28. A

    I Trying to understand entanglement and "dense coding"

    First, how is a computer bit attached to a photon? Why does entanglement allow for two bits? How is it nonlocal?
  29. F

    Coding theory: Find the right code word

    Error correction can be performed on 1010101 after reception, i need to find the right code <br> i know that the polynomial for the received code is $$x^6+x^4+x2+1$$ when i try to find the error pattern,by long division, $$r(x)/g(x)$$ the remainder is $$z^2+z^2+1$$ xor $$z^2+z+1$$ so the...
  30. cookiemnstr510510

    MATLAB Indexing error in MATLAB coding project

    Hello, I am working on a MATLAB project for my intro to MATLAB course. My project evaluates certain parameters of a spring mass system and graphs the result along with a little mock animation. inputs the user is allowed to change: Initial Position at time =0 Initial Velocity at time=0 Mass of...
  31. Arman777

    I Exploring the Cosmos through Coding to Cosmology Projects

    For Project I need to find something related to the Cosmology and Coding (combined) any ideas ? Btw it should not be so simple such as Ned's Cosmology calculator.
  32. CCMarie

    I Entropy & Coding: Proving Huffman Reduction Cannot Decrease

    For {pi}i=1,n being the probability distribution, I want to show that a Huffman reduction cannot be decreasing, and I reached a point where I need to show that q+H(p1,...,pn-s,q) ≥ H(p1,...,pn), where q = pn-s+1 + ... + pn and s is chosen such that: 2 ≤ s ≤ m (m≥n) and s = n (mod(m-1)) where...
  33. J

    Comp Sci C++ program to read an input file with multiple headers

    Homework Statement Write a program that can read an input file with a simple header. The Attempt at a Solution #include <iostream> #include <fstream> using namespace std; int main() { ifstream inFile; inFile.open("Data"); //Check for error if (inFile.fail()) { cout...
  34. C

    Finding the minimum number of boxes to pack products

    Homework Statement This was a coding challenge, and I've already completed it. But I feel there must be a better solution to my approach at the moment. Especially maybe there's a mathematical approach. You have 3 sizes of boxes, small, medium, large: small: holds 3 items medium: holds 5 items...
  35. Quantum_Arcanium

    Physics Want to become Theoretical Physicist but don't know Coding

    Hi, I am an aspiring Theoretical Physicist. I've heard that you need to know many programming languages to become a Physicist, but I have never learned a single programming language in my life and I am 16-17 years old now. Is there any chance of me still becoming one? Is there anything I can do...
  36. Arman777

    Can I use Microsoft Visual Studio For coding C ?

    I will take Intro to C programming this semester and can I use MVS for coding C ?
  37. K

    What are some good coding languages for beginners?

    I'm 23 and currently still in undergrad. I want to learn how to start coding before I take my core classes for computer science. What are some good coding languages to start with?
  38. G

    Chemistry 35yo combustion chemistry PhD, free time and still no plan

    Hi there, TL/DR - I have a community college job with a sufficient salary. Should I be happy with that + freetime or should I try to get a job which really uses my PhD? If I go with happy freetime option, are any of the projects I propose interesting AND feasible? If I am too lazy to follow...
  39. H

    MATLAB What is the issue with my step function code and how can I fix it?

    I wrote some code that is supposed to give me the step function: function y=step_fn(x,a,b) %This is the step function, given a range from a to b, it wil produce a %function which is 1 from a to b and zero otherwise. L=length(x); y=zeros(1,L); n=find(x<=a,1,'last'); if (b==max(x)) m=L; else...
  40. M

    Coding a numerical approximation for a damped pendulum

    Hi there. I have a question about the damped pendulum. I am working on an exercise where I have already numerically approximated the solution for a simple pendulum without dampening. Now, the excercise says that I can simply change the code of this simple situation to describe a pendulum with...
  41. C

    MATLAB Coding angular spectrum of waves in a fluid

    Hi, I am trying to code ultrasonic transducer radiation in water using angular spectrum of plane waves. I am having difficulties in the sampling and fft. If anybody has an idea about this can you please help me out? I can paste the code once i get some response. Thanks for your help!
  42. BillTre

    Is Autism due to Predictive Coding Problems?

    This long Science magazine news article describes a model that tries to explain autism as a problem in predictive coding of the nervous system. The result is that many common stimuli seem surprising. There is a discussion of predictive coding in the nervous system and how it relates to...
  43. R

    Comp Sci Velocity Verlet applied to solar system with C++

    Homework Statement Hello, I am attempting to use the velocity Verlet algorithm of integration applied to the solar system in c++. My goal is be able to use the outputted position components in a plot to see if the trajectory of my object is elliptical/parabolic/hyperbolic resulting from the...
  44. P

    Physics Transitioning from teaching to Data science

    Hi all! First of all I am sorry about (grammatical ,etc) mistakes that I maybe do but english is not my first language. I am physics teacher in Greece holding a B.Sc. in Physics and a M.Sc. in Physics teaching. After 3 years of professional teaching I would like to start working in another...
  45. ramzerimar

    Engineering Is a Career in Software an Option for Mechanical Engineers?

    I'm at the third year of my MechE course, and in those three years I've developed a keen interest in software/coding. I still like my degree, things like fluid dynamics/aerodynamics fascinate me, but more and more I see myself working with software and coding. One of the things that I like about...
  46. infinitebubble

    FaceBook AI runs away with secret coding of it's own

    So reading this today where FACEBOOK engineers had to unplug an AI system because the AI bots started to create it's own language and programmers could not decipher the code/language between the bots. They 'panicked' and pulled the plug on it...
  47. A

    I Can superdense coding be achieved without quantum memory?

    In superdense coding how can BSA be performed on the second of a pair of hyperentangled photons if the photon that was sent sometime earlier was measured on arrival? Would not the measurement have destroyed the entanglement? I’m trying to understand superdense coding as set out in this paper...
  48. The_Inventor

    C/C++ Creating a simple password program in C++

    So I'm trying to teach myself C++ programming and I'm having trouble writing a password program. Essentially I want to program to ask the user to input a password, and then compare that input with the correct password. If the user input matches the password I want the program to output a message...
  49. doktorwho

    How to dynamically allocate an array of strings

    I was supposed to write a program that has a while loop in which two people, person1 and person2 input a string. The program runs the loop until one of the people inputs "it's over". At that time the program should exit and print out the correspodance between these two people while they were in...