What is India: Definition and 92 Discussions

India (Hindi: Bhārat), officially the Republic of India (Hindi: Bhārat Gaṇarājya), is a country in South Asia. It is the second-most populous country, the seventh-largest country by land area, and the most populous democracy in the world. Bounded by the Indian Ocean on the south, the Arabian Sea on the southwest, and the Bay of Bengal on the southeast, it shares land borders with Pakistan to the west; China, Nepal, and Bhutan to the north; and Bangladesh and Myanmar to the east. In the Indian Ocean, India is in the vicinity of Sri Lanka and the Maldives; its Andaman and Nicobar Islands share a maritime border with Thailand, Myanmar and Indonesia.
Modern humans arrived on the Indian subcontinent from Africa no later than 55,000 years ago.
Their long occupation, initially in varying forms of isolation as hunter-gatherers, has made the region highly diverse, second only to Africa in human genetic diversity. Settled life emerged on the subcontinent in the western margins of the Indus river basin 9,000 years ago, evolving gradually into the Indus Valley Civilisation of the third millennium BCE.
By 1200 BCE, an archaic form of Sanskrit, an Indo-European language, had diffused into India from the northwest, unfolding as the language of the Rigveda, and recording the dawning of Hinduism in India.
The Dravidian languages of India were supplanted in the northern and western regions.
By 400 BCE, stratification and exclusion by caste had emerged within Hinduism,
and Buddhism and Jainism had arisen, proclaiming social orders unlinked to heredity.
Early political consolidations gave rise to the loose-knit Maurya and Gupta Empires based in the Ganges Basin.
Their collective era was suffused with wide-ranging creativity, but also marked by the declining status of women, and the incorporation of untouchability into an organised system of belief. In South India, the Middle kingdoms exported Dravidian-languages scripts and religious cultures to the kingdoms of Southeast Asia.In the early medieval era, Christianity, Islam, Judaism, and Zoroastrianism put down roots on India's southern and western coasts.
Muslim armies from Central Asia intermittently overran India's northern plains,
eventually establishing the Delhi Sultanate, and drawing northern India into the cosmopolitan networks of medieval Islam.
In the 15th century, the Vijayanagara Empire created a long-lasting composite Hindu culture in south India.
In the Punjab, Sikhism emerged, rejecting institutionalised religion.
The Mughal Empire, in 1526, ushered in two centuries of relative peace,
leaving a legacy of luminous architecture.
Gradually expanding rule of the British East India Company followed, turning India into a colonial economy, but also consolidating its sovereignty. British Crown rule began in 1858. The rights promised to Indians were granted slowly, but technological changes were introduced, and ideas of education, modernity and the public life took root.
A pioneering and influential nationalist movement emerged, which was noted for nonviolent resistance and became the major factor in ending British rule. In 1947 the British Indian Empire was partitioned into two independent dominions, a Hindu-majority Dominion of India and a Muslim-majority Dominion of Pakistan, amid large-scale loss of life and an unprecedented migration.India has been a federal republic since 1950, governed in a democratic parliamentary system. It is a pluralistic, multilingual and multi-ethnic society. India's population grew from 361 million in 1951 to 1.211 billion in 2011.
During the same time, its nominal per capita income increased from US$64 annually to US$1,498, and its literacy rate from 16.6% to 74%. From being a comparatively destitute country in 1951,
India has become a fast-growing major economy and a hub for information technology services, with an expanding middle class. It has a space programme which includes several planned or completed extraterrestrial missions. Indian movies, music, and spiritual teachings play an increasing role in global culture.
India has substantially reduced its rate of poverty, though at the cost of increasing economic inequality.
India is a nuclear-weapon state, which ranks high in military expenditure. It has disputes over Kashmir with its neighbours, Pakistan and China, unresolved since the mid-20th century.
Among the socio-economic challenges India faces are gender inequality, child malnutrition,
and very unhealthy air pollution.
India's land is megadiverse, with four biodiversity hotspots. Its forest cover comprises 21.7% of its area. India's wildlife, which has traditionally been viewed with tolerance in India's culture, is supported among these forests, and elsewhere, in protected habitats.

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  1. A

    Im a biologist!

    High Im Akash from India. Flibbity floof we're friends now. oops. was that enough material?
  2. PavithraSelvaraj

    Ended up here because of my friction with physics

    How did you find PF?: Via a google search Hey all! I am a student from India. I want to intuitively discover and understand physics concepts. I have had my rock bottom moments with it, hated it, got curious, tried to learn more, and the loop continues. I ended up here, because of a google...
  3. sd14

    Biology Confused about pursuing PhD (Indian Scenario) -- Help please

    Hii, I am of +26 years old. I am confused whether I should pursue PhD in India or look for research jobs. I like to read but I am not meticulous smart, I get confused easily and things doesn't make sense to me easily until I put my extra efforts. Kindly help me to choose a career trajectory. I...
  4. immortalsameer13

    What is Quantum Theory and How Does it Apply to Classical Entities?

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  5. tanaygupta2000

    Astrophysics research at ISRO in India?

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  6. Wrichik Basu

    Other Updating Resume for Graduate School Admissions in India: Adding Online Courses

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  7. A

    Best Engineering College in Bareilly, India For Best Faculty and Placement

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  8. B

    Hard thermodynamics high school question from an entrance exam in India for colleges

    as the process has been given as an adiabatic one, dQ=0, further attempt is given in the attached files, but the problem is I got X=1 while the official key states it to be X=2.05, could anyone explain why
  9. Wrichik Basu

    COVID Surge of Post-COVID Fungal Infections in India: Causes & Prevention

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  10. Wrichik Basu

    LIGO India is hosting a series of live talks on Youtube

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  11. preachingpirate24

    Admissions Chances of Getting into MIT as an International Student from India

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  12. Wrichik Basu

    Cyclone Fani - SOS alert in India

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  13. phinds

    India scientists dismiss Einstein theories

    I am confident that there are scientific nut cases in every country (there certainly are in the US) but usually they are fringe people or just crackpots. It has long amazed me the extent to which seemingly responsible people in India subscribe to ridiculous theories. I've had a couple of direct...
  14. M

    What inspired an engineering graduate to pursue a career in theoretical physics?

    Hey there! This is Mayank Bhandare, from India. I am a recent graduate in Mechanical Engineering from the University of Mumbai. Though it's a strange switch as many would say, I am planning to pursue a career as a Theoretical Physicist/Cosmologist. I have a couple of entrances the next month...
  15. Baibhab Bose

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  16. V

    How to get into Harvard, MIT or Princeton from India?

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  17. Quantum Aravinth

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  18. Avimanyu Ray

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  19. A

    Schools PhD from US after B.Sc, M.Sc from India

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  20. S

    Studying Where to study for UG Physics? (from India)

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  21. Anithadhruvbud

    Schools Get into american med school after college in india?

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  22. Nachiket Hole

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  23. A

    Preparing for Exams: Seeking Answers on the Internet

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  24. tanmay

    Engineering What is salary of an aeronautical engineer?

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  25. ayush solanki

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  26. Somit Jain

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  27. Monsterboy

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  28. S

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  29. lqgfan

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  30. C

    How to become a Physicist in India?

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  31. R

    Which are the best institutes offering MSc Physics in India?

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  32. dexterdev

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  33. A

    News Chinese incursion leaves India on verge of crisis

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  34. R

    Integrated Msc in india after 10+2 years

    I would like to know about the good institutes in India offering 5 years integrated Msc course in Physics
  35. A

    How many institutes are there in India for theoretical physics?

    howmany institutes are there in India for theoretical physics.
  36. I

    Examples for innovative ideas which helps rural india

    I am an ECE. I just need to know precisely about Innovative engineering designs that caused the development of rural India. It should have created a revolution by solving the common man's problem. Give me 10 to 15 examples of such innovations produced. Please refrain from giving me examples like...
  37. V

    Schools Best college for PhD in A&A in India?

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  38. T

    Schools Low High school GPA, CC or India

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  39. N

    Difficulty level of pre-IPhO exams in india.

    my basics and concepts in physics are relatively the best among my classmates but i have not done expected amount of problems that require IPhO. i am from India and first level NSEP is on 25 november 2012 so i have about 100 days for problem practice. I have collected the following books -...
  40. A

    PhD in US for M.Sc Physics India H4 Visa Holders

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  41. P

    MSc in Physics after B.Tech in India?

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  42. B

    Is India Poised to Become a Global Engineering Leader?

    India is now worlds second most populated country and delivers many skilled engineers all over the world (eg Dubai). Do you think India will become a new Engineering powerhouse?
  43. G

    News India successfully test fires 5000km range missile Agni - V

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  44. N

    Best place for physics in India -- Undergraduate

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  45. S

    Undergraduate physics courses in India

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  46. E

    Its a mistake to pursue for Physics honors in India

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  47. R

    Programs Doing a Bachelors Degree in Maths from India

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  48. D

    Transmission voltages in India

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  49. A

    13th Hour Decision to Do a BSc. Physics in India

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  50. A

    News India - Election 2011 - India Against Corruption

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