What is India: Definition and 92 Discussions

India (Hindi: Bhārat), officially the Republic of India (Hindi: Bhārat Gaṇarājya), is a country in South Asia. It is the second-most populous country, the seventh-largest country by land area, and the most populous democracy in the world. Bounded by the Indian Ocean on the south, the Arabian Sea on the southwest, and the Bay of Bengal on the southeast, it shares land borders with Pakistan to the west; China, Nepal, and Bhutan to the north; and Bangladesh and Myanmar to the east. In the Indian Ocean, India is in the vicinity of Sri Lanka and the Maldives; its Andaman and Nicobar Islands share a maritime border with Thailand, Myanmar and Indonesia.
Modern humans arrived on the Indian subcontinent from Africa no later than 55,000 years ago.
Their long occupation, initially in varying forms of isolation as hunter-gatherers, has made the region highly diverse, second only to Africa in human genetic diversity. Settled life emerged on the subcontinent in the western margins of the Indus river basin 9,000 years ago, evolving gradually into the Indus Valley Civilisation of the third millennium BCE.
By 1200 BCE, an archaic form of Sanskrit, an Indo-European language, had diffused into India from the northwest, unfolding as the language of the Rigveda, and recording the dawning of Hinduism in India.
The Dravidian languages of India were supplanted in the northern and western regions.
By 400 BCE, stratification and exclusion by caste had emerged within Hinduism,
and Buddhism and Jainism had arisen, proclaiming social orders unlinked to heredity.
Early political consolidations gave rise to the loose-knit Maurya and Gupta Empires based in the Ganges Basin.
Their collective era was suffused with wide-ranging creativity, but also marked by the declining status of women, and the incorporation of untouchability into an organised system of belief. In South India, the Middle kingdoms exported Dravidian-languages scripts and religious cultures to the kingdoms of Southeast Asia.In the early medieval era, Christianity, Islam, Judaism, and Zoroastrianism put down roots on India's southern and western coasts.
Muslim armies from Central Asia intermittently overran India's northern plains,
eventually establishing the Delhi Sultanate, and drawing northern India into the cosmopolitan networks of medieval Islam.
In the 15th century, the Vijayanagara Empire created a long-lasting composite Hindu culture in south India.
In the Punjab, Sikhism emerged, rejecting institutionalised religion.
The Mughal Empire, in 1526, ushered in two centuries of relative peace,
leaving a legacy of luminous architecture.
Gradually expanding rule of the British East India Company followed, turning India into a colonial economy, but also consolidating its sovereignty. British Crown rule began in 1858. The rights promised to Indians were granted slowly, but technological changes were introduced, and ideas of education, modernity and the public life took root.
A pioneering and influential nationalist movement emerged, which was noted for nonviolent resistance and became the major factor in ending British rule. In 1947 the British Indian Empire was partitioned into two independent dominions, a Hindu-majority Dominion of India and a Muslim-majority Dominion of Pakistan, amid large-scale loss of life and an unprecedented migration.India has been a federal republic since 1950, governed in a democratic parliamentary system. It is a pluralistic, multilingual and multi-ethnic society. India's population grew from 361 million in 1951 to 1.211 billion in 2011.
During the same time, its nominal per capita income increased from US$64 annually to US$1,498, and its literacy rate from 16.6% to 74%. From being a comparatively destitute country in 1951,
India has become a fast-growing major economy and a hub for information technology services, with an expanding middle class. It has a space programme which includes several planned or completed extraterrestrial missions. Indian movies, music, and spiritual teachings play an increasing role in global culture.
India has substantially reduced its rate of poverty, though at the cost of increasing economic inequality.
India is a nuclear-weapon state, which ranks high in military expenditure. It has disputes over Kashmir with its neighbours, Pakistan and China, unresolved since the mid-20th century.
Among the socio-economic challenges India faces are gender inequality, child malnutrition,
and very unhealthy air pollution.
India's land is megadiverse, with four biodiversity hotspots. Its forest cover comprises 21.7% of its area. India's wildlife, which has traditionally been viewed with tolerance in India's culture, is supported among these forests, and elsewhere, in protected habitats.

View More On Wikipedia.org
  1. A

    Im a biologist!

    High Im Akash from India. Flibbity floof we're friends now. oops. was that enough material?
  2. PavithraSelvaraj

    Ended up here because of my friction with physics

    How did you find PF?: Via a google search Hey all! I am a student from India. I want to intuitively discover and understand physics concepts. I have had my rock bottom moments with it, hated it, got curious, tried to learn more, and the loop continues. I ended up here, because of a google...
  3. sd14

    Biology Confused about pursuing PhD (Indian Scenario) -- Help please

    Hii, I am of +26 years old. I am confused whether I should pursue PhD in India or look for research jobs. I like to read but I am not meticulous smart, I get confused easily and things doesn't make sense to me easily until I put my extra efforts. Kindly help me to choose a career trajectory. I...
  4. immortalsameer13

    What is Quantum Theory and How Does it Apply to Classical Entities?

    hello! my name is Mohammad Sameer from India. Pursuing five years integrated masters in physics, will be starting my second year in couple of days. Interested in quantum theory of classical entities and want to explore more in the domain.
  5. tanaygupta2000

    Astrophysics research at ISRO in India?

    TL;DR Summary: Theoretical astrophysics research status in ISRO, India I am from India and want to be an astrophysicist serving my nation. Whenever I check about any ISRO news, it is always about some engineering achievements, like the launch vehicle and never about pure theoretical research...
  6. Wrichik Basu

    Other Updating Resume for Graduate School Admissions in India: Adding Online Courses

    I am about to start applying to different graduate schools in my country (India) for pursuing a Masters in Physics. Unfortunately, very few Indian universities actually want a resume, and offer admission based on competitive exams only. Nevertheless, I am updating my resume and keeping it ready...
  7. A

    Best Engineering College in Bareilly, India For Best Faculty and Placement

    Summary:: Tell me the best Engineering Colleg in Bareilly, India, for the best faculty and placement I am searching for a preferred destination for engineering.
  8. B

    Hard thermodynamics high school question from an entrance exam in India for colleges

    as the process has been given as an adiabatic one, dQ=0, further attempt is given in the attached files, but the problem is I got X=1 while the official key states it to be X=2.05, could anyone explain why
  9. Wrichik Basu

    COVID Surge of Post-COVID Fungal Infections in India: Causes & Prevention

    In India, we are facing a surge of post-COVID fungal infections. The most widespread is Mucormycosis (aka black fungus). There has also been a number of cases of white fungus (probably the existing disease Candidiasis, as per this article), and a yellow fungus (anyone knows the medical term for...
  10. Wrichik Basu

    LIGO India is hosting a series of live talks on Youtube

    LIGO India EPO (Education and Public Outreach) team is hosting a series of talks on Youtube. No registration or any formalities; just tune into the LIGO India EPO Youtube channel and you can attend the lectures. Following is the list of upcoming talks: 20th April: Speaker: Prof. Ajith...
  11. preachingpirate24

    Admissions Chances of Getting into MIT as an International Student from India

    Hey! I'm a 11th grader right now, and I'm really interested in majoring in physics, and maybe engineering too. Now, I know that it's really hard to get into MIT, Harvard, Caltech, and all those really great institutes with amazing physics undergrad courses (The best in the world apparently...
  12. Wrichik Basu

    Cyclone Fani - SOS alert in India

    NDTV, one of India's leading news agencies, describes it as "extremely severe". Its landfall will be at about 205kmph. The two states that are under high alert are West Bengal and Odisha. Quoting the news article: In its severity, Fani can be compared to Hudhud which, in 2014, caused extensive...
  13. phinds

    India scientists dismiss Einstein theories

    I am confident that there are scientific nut cases in every country (there certainly are in the US) but usually they are fringe people or just crackpots. It has long amazed me the extent to which seemingly responsible people in India subscribe to ridiculous theories. I've had a couple of direct...
  14. M

    What inspired an engineering graduate to pursue a career in theoretical physics?

    Hey there! This is Mayank Bhandare, from India. I am a recent graduate in Mechanical Engineering from the University of Mumbai. Though it's a strange switch as many would say, I am planning to pursue a career as a Theoretical Physicist/Cosmologist. I have a couple of entrances the next month...
  15. Baibhab Bose

    Exploring the Boundaries of Physics and Mathematics: A Scientist's Journey

    I am Baibhab Bose, from India. I have just completed Masters in Physics from University of Delhi. I hope to delve into deeper insightful discussions on physics and mathematics and would like that there would be no 'Poles' of any order in the space of my understandings which is inside the...
  16. V

    How to get into Harvard, MIT or Princeton from India?

    Hi everyone, I am a 10th grader studying in India. I want to know what it will take to get into universities like Harvard, MIT, etc. I have been getting 10 CGPA from class 6th to 9th,and i hope to score well in my boards. I am also a 5th grade pianist(Trinity) and I hope to complete upto 7...
  17. Quantum Aravinth

    Programs Graduate degree program in Physics [from UG in India]

    I am from India, doing third year undergraduate Physics. This is a three year degree program and I am completing it in another 2 weeks. I would like to move abroad for my graduate studies. But I am not sure how to start, which universities would accept three year degree program, general criteria...
  18. Avimanyu Ray

    Admissions Academic guidance after graduation with honours (India)

    Hello, I am currently in 2nd year of my 3 year course B.Sc. honours (India) course in physics. I was looking forward to studying the university which is apt for me in masters...what are my options of studying abroad like UK or other universities good for physics? Also I would like to know about...
  19. A

    Schools PhD from US after B.Sc, M.Sc from India

    I want to be a theoretical physicist. I have great interest in astronomy and want to pursue the same. Because of lesser research opportunities in India, I want to move out to US in the future. I have just given my board exams. I intend to do my B.Sc. Physics Honours from India. I have read that...
  20. S

    Studying Where to study for UG Physics? (from India)

    Hello to everyone out there! Let me explain my situation. I am currently studying in India, with my Final year of high-school left to complete. I have been interested in Physics since Glade 7, fascinated with phenomenons like Quantum tunneling and Entanglemnet(thanks to Science Fiction for that...
  21. Anithadhruvbud

    Schools Get into american med school after college in india?

    Is it possible to get into an American medschool like Harvard after completing MBBS from a reputed college in India? I heard from my friends that I need to be rich enough to study in foreign countries.Won't I get any scholarship at all?
  22. Nachiket Hole

    Physics degree in India after BE?

    Hello, I've done my engineering from IT branch and I've always wanted to be a physicist (Astro-Physicist in perticular). I wanted to know about exams I can give to get a degree in physics. I am very serious about this and prepared to study for long hours. Please only answer if you're familiar...
  23. A

    Preparing for Exams: Seeking Answers on the Internet

    Hey everyone, I am Anushka from India. Honestly, I have my exams approaching and since my teachers are being of no help, I thought of reverting to the Internet for my questions. Hoping to answer and ask many questions. :)
  24. tanmay

    Engineering What is salary of an aeronautical engineer?

    Sir It is my dream to become aeronautical engineer. So I want to know what is Minimum & Maximum Salary of aeronautical engineer in India & Out of India? Is Aeronautical engineering has really good scope in future?
  25. ayush solanki

    How to become a string theorist in India?

    i'm in 10th standard and am fascinated about theoretical physics.i have started reading books related to it-"brief history of space and time","The Elegant Universe"by Brian Greene.of all the stuff,i'm mostly interested in the string theory.my concern is that is there a scope for being a...
  26. Somit Jain

    Schools What college to join for Bsc in Physics in India?

    I cleared my 12th board and am expecting to get about 80% and I did not do very well in Jee mains either as I only solved the physics portion. I will be giving cmi entrance exam but I want some more options. Please help.
  27. Monsterboy

    News Obama in India: What Can Be Achieved?

    http://edition.cnn.com/2015/01/25/politics/feat-india-visit-friendly-moments/index.html http://m.bbc.com/news/world-us-canada-30941646 On Day 2 India parades Russian tanks in front of Obama.
  28. S

    Why are students in India pushed to be Engineers?

    Why is are students in India so often guided (or forced) into being engineers? (I have the impression this is a valid question, my only sources being remarks by posters on this forum and the Crazyengineers forum, and the movie "3 Idiots".) I can imagine very different explanations for this...
  29. lqgfan

    Which is the best MSc Physics Entrance Coaching Center in Delhi?

    I am sure this topic has not been posted this forum before since it didn't come up in my search. I am preparing for MSc and Integrated PhD (in physics) entrance examinations in India using self study materials. However, I wish to join a good entrance coaching center since there is huge...
  30. C

    How to become a Physicist in India?

    I live in Noida, U.P. and I am expecting about 90% in my 12th exam. I got 202 in JEE Main and I don't think I will get a good rank in JEE Advanced, so IITs and IISERs are out of option. I have given entrance test of CMI and awaiting its result. I want to pursue a career in theoretical physics...
  31. R

    Which are the best institutes offering MSc Physics in India?

    I'm a IInd year BSc physics student.I would like to know about good institutions offering MSc physics. I also like to know about their entrance tests.
  32. dexterdev

    Machine learning as a career (in India or abroad)

    Hi all, I recently got very interested in machine learning and neural networks etc. Although I am having a taste for mathematics , I haven't rigorously learned any mathematics course because my background is electronics engineering (masters level). And also I am not a good C or Java...
  33. A

    News Chinese incursion leaves India on verge of crisis

    Chinese incursion leaves India on verge of crisis And here is yet another crisis engineered by China. I'm really surprised this doesn't get more media attention, if China keeps openly provoking its neighbors like this it could easily lead to a shooting war.
  34. R

    Integrated Msc in india after 10+2 years

    I would like to know about the good institutes in India offering 5 years integrated Msc course in Physics
  35. A

    How many institutes are there in India for theoretical physics?

    howmany institutes are there in India for theoretical physics.
  36. I

    Examples for innovative ideas which helps rural india

    I am an ECE. I just need to know precisely about Innovative engineering designs that caused the development of rural India. It should have created a revolution by solving the common man's problem. Give me 10 to 15 examples of such innovations produced. Please refrain from giving me examples like...
  37. V

    Schools Best college for PhD in A&A in India?

    Best college for PhD in A&A in India?? Hi All, I am planning to apply for my PhD in Astronomy and Astrophysics in India. I have the following colleges as options. Can you help me in ordering the colleges based on their expertise in the field, Infrastructure etc.. My options are...
  38. T

    Schools Low High school GPA, CC or India

    I have an extreemly low High school GPA (1.9) and I could be wrong but I do not think there is anyway they will accept me to a university with these grades even if I have pretty good SAT scores (720 math and 580 reading I belive). So how should I go about studing physics to eventually get my...
  39. N

    Difficulty level of pre-IPhO exams in india.

    my basics and concepts in physics are relatively the best among my classmates but i have not done expected amount of problems that require IPhO. i am from India and first level NSEP is on 25 november 2012 so i have about 100 days for problem practice. I have collected the following books -...
  40. A

    PhD in US for M.Sc Physics India H4 Visa Holders

    Hi everybody Iam asha right now iam in u.s on h4 visa..i complted my m.sc physics in India and now i would like to do my ph.d in u.s...what will be university fee for h4 visa holders and what is the process to join in ph.d in u.s universities and how to transfer h4 visa to F1...
  41. P

    MSc in Physics after B.Tech in India?

    Hi there, I am a HS passout in India and gave various engineering entrance examinations((IIT JEE, AIEEE, etc.)) this year. I want to know if it is possible to do MSc in Physics from IITs or some institute after doing B. Tech? I want to have a career in Astronomy and Astrophysics but there...
  42. B

    Is India Poised to Become a Global Engineering Leader?

    India is now worlds second most populated country and delivers many skilled engineers all over the world (eg Dubai). Do you think India will become a new Engineering powerhouse?
  43. G

    News India successfully test fires 5000km range missile Agni - V

    http://www.nytimes.com/2012/04/20/world/asia/india-says-it-successfully-tests-nuclear-capable-missile.html http://www.bbc.co.uk/news/world-asia-india-17765653 There is some confusion here in India in the media as to what is meant by ICBM and whether a missile with a range of 5000 km...
  44. N

    Best place for physics in India -- Undergraduate

    This post is for those familiar with the IITJEE system in India. I wanted to know which IIT has the best physics department. If an unequivocal decision is impossible, please give me the advantages and disadvantages of whichever dep. you think is the best. Thanks in advance.
  45. S

    Undergraduate physics courses in India

    I held the view that the undergraduate physics course at CMI as the best undergraduate physics course in India as the entrance exam is competitive and tough. Very few are selected. But after reading the article: http://www.cmi.ac.in/~anirbit/CMI_Physics.pdf I feel disheartened since getting to...
  46. E

    Its a mistake to pursue for Physics honors in India

    Its a mistake to pursue for Physics honors in India ! Hi.. It is Arnab aka Esteban-Pato... I m doing Physics honors under the university of Calcutta, India and is in my 1st year... The tremendous passion towards Astrophysics and Cosmology from my very childhood has attracted me to take...
  47. R

    Programs Doing a Bachelors Degree in Maths from India

    I'm a final year student at a school in India. I'll be taking up Mathematics as my Undergraduate subject(I'm interested in Pure Mathematics, especially number theory and geometry mainly thanks to Hardy's "An Introduction to the theory of numbers" and Courant's "What is Mathematics?")...
  48. D

    Transmission voltages in India

    why transmission voltages in India are multiples of 11kv?
  49. A

    13th Hour Decision to Do a BSc. Physics in India

    Hi, I'm a 20 year old science student, having just cleared my 12th from CBSE. I skipped the 12th exams twice for several medical reasons, and my scores this year are as follows: Eng: 46 Phy: 71 Chem: 78 Math: 33 CompSci: 77 I will send the English paper for a re-eval, since I wasn't...
  50. A

    News India - Election 2011 - India Against Corruption

    India - Election 2011 - India Against Corruption 1. Has anyone from Anywhere, India, TN, Chennai looked into alternate candidates to the usual INC, DMK, AIADMK, etc. Any interesting candidates? 2. Has anyone met any of the candidates in person? If so, kindly provide your take on them...
Back
Top