The Saturn IB (pronounced "Saturn one bee", also known as the uprated Saturn I) was an American launch vehicle commissioned by the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) for the Apollo program. It uprated the Saturn I by replacing the S-IV second stage (90,000-pound-force (400,000 N), 43,380,000 lb-sec total impulse), with the S-IVB (200,000-pound-force (890,000 N), 96,000,000 lb-sec total impulse). The S-IB first stage also increased the S-I baseline's thrust from 1,500,000 pounds-force (6,700,000 N) to 1,600,000 pounds-force (7,100,000 N) and propellant load by 3.1%. This increased the Saturn I's low Earth orbit payload capability from 20,000 pounds (9,100 kg) to 46,000 pounds (21,000 kg), enough for early flight tests of a half-fueled Apollo command and service module (CSM) or a fully fueled Apollo Lunar Module (LM), before the larger Saturn V needed for lunar flight was ready.
By sharing the S-IVB upper stage, the Saturn IB and Saturn V provided a common interface to the Apollo spacecraft. The only major difference was that the S-IVB on the Saturn V burned only part of its propellant to achieve Earth orbit, so it could be restarted for trans-lunar injection. The S-IVB on the Saturn IB needed all of its propellant to achieve Earth orbit.
The Saturn IB launched two uncrewed CSM suborbital flights to a height of 162km, one uncrewed LM orbital flight, and the first crewed CSM orbital mission (first planned as Apollo 1, later flown as Apollo 7). It also launched one orbital mission, AS-203, without a payload so the S-IVB would have residual liquid hydrogen fuel. This mission supported the design of the restartable version of the S-IVB used in the Saturn V, by observing the behavior of the liquid hydrogen in weightlessness.
In 1973, the year after the Apollo lunar program ended, three Apollo CSM/Saturn IBs ferried crews to the Skylab space station. In 1975, one last Apollo/Saturn IB launched the Apollo portion of the joint US-USSR Apollo–Soyuz Test Project (ASTP). A backup Apollo CSM/Saturn IB was assembled and made ready for a Skylab rescue mission, but never flown.
The remaining Saturn IBs in NASA's inventory were scrapped after the ASTP mission, as no use could be found for them and all heavy lift needs of the US space program could be serviced by the cheaper and more versatile Titan III family and also the Space Shuttle.
TL;DR Summary: hi everyone! i am currently a junior in high school and I am writing a 3000-4000 word research paper on star life cycle and its role in the creation of celestial bodies. i have encountered an issue where I do not meet the word requirement because i am not exactly making a proper...
Hi. This is not exactly a homework problem, but I'm posting to ask for help for my extended essay.
I am doing the IB (international baccalaureate) program and we are required to write a 4000 words extended essay on any subject.
I decided to do mine on physics (through process of elimination...
Hi guys, I am a first year IB student and I need to give hand in my research question for the extended essay today, the only thing is that I don't really know what I could do it on. The extended essay is basically a 4000 word research project. I was going to do it on photoelasticity, but when I...
These are a few topics I had shortlisted, please advise if anyone of them is EE worthy:
- To what extent does the rotational velocity of a ping-pong ball affect its horizontal travel distance?
-How is the drop time of a parachute affected by variables such as mass, canopy area, size of apex...
I'm having trouble coming up with a experiment to investigate for my IB Extended Essay as well as formulating my research question. Does anyone have any recommendations on similar (in terms of classical physics & abundance of background theory) physics experiments that can be done?
Summary:: - IB Extended Essay
- Physics
- Quantum Mechanics and Electricity/ Electrical Components
I've been asked to pick a topic for my IB Extended Essay. Basically the extended essay is a piece of independent research done during the course of IB. It's meant to be 4000 words and you have to...
A person picks 8 cards without replacement from a bag containing cards numbered from 1 to 6 (117 in total). What is the probability that the sum of those 8 cards is 28? Given that P(1)=8/117, P(2)=14/117, P(3)=34/117, P(4)=39/117. P(5)=14/117 and P(6)=8/117.
Morning all
I've recently come across a problem where I get conceptually but cannot apply mathematically if that makes sense.
I understand the position of the third mass must be at the equilibrium point of ##m_1## (##9.0×10^{24}kg##), so ##\Sigma F = 0## right? And not even necessarily zero...
I've decided to focus my essay on quantum locking: including superconductors (YBCO), the Meissner Effect. I have access to the materials needed to experiment with this topic (materials from quantumlevitation.com). Could anyone help me formulate an appropriate research question for my Extended...
In about 4 days I have to hand in my final draft for my Physics Internal Assesment and require help in linearising a graph. My research question is : "How do the different angles of incidences (from the vertical) of a roll-on deodorant bottle’s ball that rolls a distance of 20cm on parafilm...
By using the equation for the Gravitational Potential -GM/R. It is understand that the max Gravitation Potential would be at infinity point.
- G(100M)/22R-(-GM/22R) would be the maximum Gravitational Potential... I guess...
Then what would be the next step to find the distance?
<< Multiple threads on the same subject merged, Thread moved to the schoolwork forums, and the OP has been reminded to show more effort on their own schoolwork questions >>
I want an investigation/research that is simple to experiment practically (I don't have fancy equipment. My main piece of...
Can anyone explain how to solve this question, please? The answer is a=5 & b=7, but I don't understand how to solve it.
The graph of function f(x) = ax + b is transformed by the following sequence:
translation by (1) (meaning 1 horizontal, 2 vertical)
(2)...
Hi everyone!
I am currently in desperate need of help in choosing an appropriate topic for an extended essay in HL physics.
(If you didn't know, an extended essay is a 4000 research paper where you analyze data, do experiments etc... for a particular topic of your choice)
I am really interested...
Homework Statement
A bus is traveling at a constant speed of 6.2ms-1 along a section of road that is inclined at an angle of 6.0degrees to the horizontal.
a) the total output power of the engine of the bus is 70kW and the efficiency of the engine is 35%. calculate the power to the engine
b)...
Homework Statement
Homework Equations
I didn't understand the first step.
If tan (z) = a + ib, how can tan (z conjugate) be a - ib?
tan is not a linear function.
I know conjugates. x + iy, conjugate is x - iy
But here the tan function is there.
The Attempt at a Solution
...
Homework Statement
I am working on a math investigation which involves the physics of the flute and I can't move on unless I find an equation for the change in required velocity of the air stream to produce different frequencies. I have a feeling I might have to abandon this idea and do...
Homework Statement
Hi! A long, straight, current-carrying wire is placed between a pair of magnets as shown. What is the direction of the force on the wire?
Homework Equations
Fleming's hand rules
The Attempt at a Solution
I used the Flemings right hand rule but that gives me that the force...
Homework Statement
An object is released from rest in the gravitational field of the Earth. Air resistance is negligible. How far does the object move during the fourth second of its motion?
A. 15 m
B. 25 m
C. 35 m
D. 45 m
Homework Equations
v = u + at
s = ut + 1/2 at^2
v^2=u^+2as...
Hi, guys, this is my first time on PF!
My IA is about bungee jumping where I increase the mass and look at the efficiency of energy at the lowest point of the jump.
My question is: How do I find the spring constant k for an elastic cord? I need it so I can plug it into the elastic potential...
In the IB diploma program, they ask for a "Mathematical Exploration", where I have to deal with a topic with mathematical tools.
For example:
How to get the perfect exit of Gymnastics Bars?
In "exploration" you have to see the measurements, the angles, velocity trajectories, mathematical tools...
I'm starting the extended essay and have decided to explore more on finding the viscosity of Newtonian liquids. However I was told by my supervisor that this topic is too broad, and that I should come up with a more specific topic/research question— one that possibly relates to a real life...
Hello, I am currently studying Physics HL in the IB Diploma Program, I am getting ready to work on the exploration internal assessment. I was wondering if there are any good topics that I should consider, thanks <3
Homework Statement
What is it: Practice Paper 1 b question for SL Economics IB
Question: Discuss why it may be important for a firm to have a knowledge of price elasticity of demand.
PS: It isn't stated explicitly to use a diagram, but my understanding is all Paper 1 questions need to be...
Homework Statement
Find Vc, Vb, Ve, Ib, Ic, and Ie
Vbe is 0.7V
Homework Equations
KVL
The Attempt at a Solution
Vb = (10*30k)/(80k) = 3.75V
Ve = Vb-Vbe = 3.05V
Ie = Ve/Re = 0.305A
Icmax = 10/(1010) = 9.9mA
Ie is much greater than 9.9mA, so this circuit is saturated. Is this correct?
Homework Statement
Find Vc, Vb, Ve, Ib, Ic, and Ie
Vbe for all circuits is 0.7V
Homework Equations
KVL
The Attempt at a Solution
Vc = 10V
Ib = (Vcc-Vbe)/(Rb + (Beta+1)Re) = 9.3/(105100) = 0.0885mA
Ic = Beta*IB = 4.425mA
Ie = Ic + Ib = 4.5135mA
Ve = IeRe = 0.45135V
Vb = Ve + Vbe = 1.15135V...
Hi guys,
I am currently doing HL IB Physics and i chose to do my Extended Essay on physics as well but i am having trouble to figure out my topic and what my question can be. I was thinking of something around the area of stability in structures or renewable energy. But i have no idea what...
So i decided to choose my ib on physics but there is a small problem,i didn't understand why an object has a normal force and a weight.If that object is on a horisontal surface you can move that object?Is there a friction force on a horisontal plane?Where and what does it do?I know there was...
I want to study Computer Science at CalTech and I wanted to know whether getting an IB diploma is worth it. Is it better to get IB or sacrifice a bit of rigor for more flexibility in the classes I choose? I know CalTech doesn't accept credit aside from their own placement test so purely in terms...
Hi everyone, I hope this is the correct place to post this thread. So, I'm in a school that takes part in the IB diploma which is basically an internationally recognized diploma that let's students have a wide range of possible universities when they leave high school. One of the requirements...
Homework Statement
I'm currently trying to decide on a topic for my IB Extended Essay, which is essentially an essay that I'll be doing research for and working on for the next 8 months. Right now, I'm really fascinated by the idea of doing an extended essay on the topic of prosthetics or...
Homework Statement
I'm currently trying to decide on a topic for my IB Extended Essay, which is essentially just a long-term essay I'll be working on for the next 8 months or so. The topic of the essay is limited to IB courses I've taken so far, in addition to a few other types of topics that...
I'm a junior in high school and currently in the IB Diploma Program. I'm getting ready to start working on my SL Physics Internal Assessment. I was wondering if anyone has any guidance on how complex a topic has to be to score well. I was thinking of testing how the mass, velocity, and...
Good day :smile:
For quite some time now, I've been thinking about what I should make my Internal Assessment for the IB course in physics on. The main objective of the IA is to find and prove a mathematical relationship between an independent and dependent variable. A very, very, simple example...
Currently I am studying IB HL physics, however I am not that great at math and constantly find myself struggling when it comes to the mathematical concepts. Are there anyways i can improve my skills? Thanks.
I am a current High School senior intending on majoring in Physics in college. Last year I took IB Physics SL and got a 4 on the test but kept my head above water on all the unit tests. I'm currently taking AP Calculus BC and am doing very well. I have exhausted all other science classes in my...
Sorry I didn't post this using the template :c, since this is not a Physics problem to solve.
Hello everyone, I hope this is the right section to ask this..
I am in a program called International Baccalaureate and I need to write a 4000 word essay on Physics. My investigation is related to 2D...
I have been trying to come up with a good question for my Ib extended essay which is a 4000 words essay about any physics topic of my choice. However, with this topic I need to come up with an experiment to further investigate this topic and write up an analysis and conclusion. I am really...
Hi i have have a small question regrading to a NPN BJT transistor.
the DC current gain (beta) is the ratio between Ic/Ib where Ic and Ib are the collector and base currents respectively.
Ib is the input current, that's alright , but, i don't get why Ic considered as the output?
in NPN BJT...
Currently, I'm in the IB program and I've never taken any AP courses back at my old school. Since I'm planning on studying Astrophysics in College, I was wondering which one prepares me the best for things concerning subjects in math and physics? After doing some research, I found that IB...
Hi. I decided a month or so ago, that I am going to do my physics extended essay on the topic of terminal velocity.
However, at the moment I am not sure what experiment I can do. At the beginning I thought I would do an experiment where I would drop bodies made of cardboard with different...
Hello, I'd really appreciate some opinions on this- I'll get a chance to do an extended essay for the IB program and I'm choosing physics, obviously. I'm not quite sure what to work on. I can choose to research something relating to experimental physics (where I design an experiment to find a...
Hi Guys,
I am currently a sophomore and I am having some trouble choosing between IB Physics, IB Chemistry, and IB Biology. I can select two of these courses for next year but I can't seem to make a decision. All of them will be helpful for the fields I am thinking of going into, and they all...
IB High Level Physics Test Question
I have encountered a question whose answer I disagree with.
I think the answer is I and II , not the I and III on the answer sheet.
What do you think ?
=================
A positively charged rod R is suspended by insulating string.
When a...
Homework Statement
Calculate the acceleration of a ball rolling down an inclined plane and also note the error.
I am going to solve it myself, so I will just give one sample.
Distance covered by ball(error : +- 0.05 cm)
.95m
Time taken(error : +- 0.01 s)
1.19s
Acceleration(with error)...
Homework Statement
The sum S n of the first n terms of a geometric sequence whose nth term is u n is given by
7n-an / 7n
Where a > 0
Find an expression for un
Find the first term and the common ratio of the sequence
Consider the sum to infinity of the sequence
Determine...