What is Inversion: Definition and 123 Discussions

A tax inversion or corporate tax inversion is a form of tax avoidance where a corporation restructures so that the current parent is replaced by a foreign parent, and the original parent company becomes a subsidiary of the foreign parent, thus moving its tax residence to the foreign country. Executives and operational headquarters can stay in the original country. The US definition requires that the original shareholders remain a majority control of the post-inverted company.

The overwhelming majority of the less than 100 material tax inversions recorded since 1993 have been of US corporations (85 inversions), seeking to pay less to the US corporate tax system. The only other jurisdiction to experience a material outflow of tax inversions was the United Kingdom from 2007 to 2010 (22 inversions); however, UK inversions largely ceased post the reform of the UK corporate tax code from 2009 to 2012.

The first inversion was McDermott International in 1983. Reforms by US Congress in 2004 halted "naked inversions", however, the size of individual "merger inversions" grew dramatically; in 2014 alone, they exceeded the cumulative value of all inversions since 1983. New US Treasury rules in 2014–16 blocked several major inversions (e.g. 2016 USD$160 billion Pfizer–Allergan plc inversion, and the 2015 USD$54 billion AbbVie–Shire plc inversion), and the Tax Cuts and Jobs Act of 2017 (TCJA) further reduced the taxation incentives of inversions. As of June 2019, there have been no material US inversions post-2017, and notably, two large Irish-based tax inversion targets were acquired in non-tax inversion transactions, where the acquirer remained in their higher-tax jurisdiction: Shire plc by Japanese pharma Takeda for US$63 billion (announced in 2018, closed in 2019), and Allergan plc by U.S. pharma AbbVie for US$64 billion (announced in 2019, expected to close in 2020); in addition, Broadcom Inc. redomesticated to the United States.
As of June 2019 the most popular destination in history for US corporate tax inversions is Ireland (with 22 inversions); Ireland was also the most popular destination for UK inversions. The largest completed corporate tax inversion in history was the US$48 billion merger of Medtronic with Covidien plc in Ireland in 2015 (the vast majority of their merged revenues are still from the US). The largest aborted tax inversion was the US$160 billion merger of Pfizer with Allergan plc in Ireland in 2016. The largest hybrid-intellectual property (IP) tax inversion was the US$300 billion acquisition of Apple Inc.'s IP by Apple Ireland in 2015.

View More On Wikipedia.org
  1. J

    Max inversion temperature for a gas (Dieterici’s equation of state)

    The notes my lecturer has provided state that the maximum temperature can be found taking p = 0 in the inversion curve formula, given as: I’m not sure how to obtain this?? These are the formulas: This is my attempt at a solution : Not sure if this approach is right?
  2. B

    Help with Space Inversion Symmetry Problem

    {a} P = identity Matrix w/ -1 on diagonals {b} eigenvalues = +/- 1
  3. R

    I Qualitative description of stimulated emission & population inversion

    I'm having trouble understanding stimulated emission and population inversion, and how they work together to make a laser work. I pretty much need this explained completely. 1. Spontaneous emission, they say, is when an atom absorbs and then later emits a photon. Isn't that just regular...
  4. BoltE

    How do you invert a 3D matrix? (Tensor inversion)

    I would like to solve a system of systems of equations Ax=b where A is an n x m x p tensor (3D) matrix, x is a vector (n x 1), and b is a matrix (n x p). I haven't been able to find a clear walk-through of inverting a tensor like how one would invert a regular matrix to solve a system of linear...
  5. Antarres

    A A question about time inversion [Weinberg]

    Recently I've started reading Weinberg QFT, Vol 1, to introduce myself better to quantum field theory, after finishing courses in qft at the university. Reading through the second chapter, I've found myself confused by his treatment of degenerate multiplets in Appendix C. Here is the equations...
  6. Z

    I Pauli spin matrices under inversion and 180 degree rotation?

    How do the Pauli spin matrices transform under an inversion ? I think I mean to say the 3 dimensional improper rotation which is just in 3 dimensional matrix notation minus the identity - so exactly how are the 2 dimensional Pauli spin matrices changed. And under a 180 rotation do the 'y' and...
  7. EEristavi

    Solving a System of Equations via the Matrix Method

    I have equation system: x + y + z - a*k = 0 -b*x + y + z = 0 -c*y + z = 0 -d*x + y = 0 where: a, b, c, d = const. Have to find: x, y, z, k Attempt of solution: I create Matrix A with coefficients; Matrix B - Solutions (Zeros) and Matrix X - variables. When I try to use Cramer's rule -...
  8. N

    A Particle swarm optimization for matrix inversion

    Hi everyone, I am working on matrix inversion and focusing on low-complexity method such as iterative method. Recently, I am interested to explore how particle swarm optimization (PSO) can be applied to do matrix inversion. Since I am very very new in PSO, I have no idea how to start my work...
  9. I

    I Center of inversion of cubic diamond structure?

    I'm having hard time finding the center of inversion of cubic diamond structure. At first I thought (2,2,2) would be the center of inversion, but (1,1,3), (3,3,3), (1,3,1), (3,1,1) (i.e. four atoms inside the cube) are not centrosymmetric about (2,2,2).
  10. J

    A How is the inversion Channel formed in SOI Mosfet?

    Hi, I'm studying MOSFET in detail and I'm struggling to understand how the channel is formed in case of SOI Mosfet. For normal mosfet A positive Gate to source voltage attracts electrons from P substrate towards Gate and thus a channel is formed. But in case of SOI There is a buried Oxide...
  11. amjad-sh

    A What is inversion symmetry in solids and why does it break at the surface?

    Hello Can somebody explain for me what is the meaning of inversion symmetry in solids? and why does it breaks at the surface? and also why this inversion symmetry breaking leads to SOC(spin orbit coupling)? If somebody also know a document that explain this in full details(from A to Z) please...
  12. R

    I Does 'Phase Inversion' grow exponentially?

    Hi! So I'm studying Gover's Algorithm and I have this doubt: Does 'Phase inversion gate' grows exponentially? I mean, if I want to signal the one combination that is the answer, I must be able to represent all 2^N states, where N is the number of qubits in the system. How do I do this without...
  13. David23454

    Biology Genetics Chromosomal Inversion problem

    Homework Statement Rewrite following sequence as double stranded molecule, with an inversion of the sequence between nucleotide 4 and 12. 5'-TCTCGCATGGTAGGT-3' Homework Equations none. The Attempt at a Solution [/B] I've read in the textbook that you take the section and rotate it 180...
  14. L

    B Is Inversion Symmetry Found in Nature or Technology?

    what is inversion symmetry?
  15. D

    I They physics of phase inversion in Grover's algorithm

    How would this operator be implemented physically if we had a quantum computer? In Grover's algorithm this magical operator is often called "phase inversion". Here is the operator from wiki: https://wikimedia.org/api/rest_v1/media/math/render/svg/07fb23bffa787430b084971c6a108a8f6ff6c2b3 It’s...
  16. teacherman

    Medical Why does a human baby's vision invert?

    Mentor note: Split the thread in two parts, the other part is here: When (and Why) Does a Human Baby's Vision "Flip". This thread discusses the inversion of human vision, "up/down", "left/right" and 180 degree rotations. Greetings to all, I realize that there is another "dead thread" about this...
  17. ntran26

    A Inversion of Division of Bessel Functions in Laplace Domain?

    Hello all, I am trying to take the inversion of this function that is in Laplace domain. I've tried using a wolfram alpha solver, and I know I can probably use stehfest algorithm to numerically solve it but wanted to know if there was an exact solution. the function is...
  18. G

    I Ratio between spontaneous/stimulated emission

    Hi. In thermodynamic equilibrium, the ratio between spontaneous and stimulated emission is $$\frac{A_{21}\cdot N_2}{B_{21}\cdot N_2\cdot u(f)}=e^{\frac{hf}{k_B T}}-1$$ where ##A_{21}## and ##B_{21}## are Einstein coefficients. This means, that there's always much more spontaneous than...
  19. T

    Lower kinetic temperature implies population inversion?

    I was just wondering: why does lower kinetic temperature imply population inversion? I've read this is true in a few (astrophysics) texts regarding molecular clouds, although this seems to be a more general result that I haven't really read an entire explanation for. Nevertheless, do you have...
  20. Y

    Time Inversion Symmetry and Angular Momentum

    Homework Statement Let ##\left|\psi\right\rangle## be a non-degenerate stationary state, i.e. an eigenstate of the Hamiltonian. Suppose the system exhibits symmetry for time inversion, but not necessarily for rotations. Show that the expectation value for the angular momentum operator is zero...
  21. H

    I Inversion of functions that aren't 1-1

    If ##t## is a function of ##r##, then we may in theory find ##r## as a function of ##t##, as claimed in the last paragraph of the attachment below. My issue is this is only true if ##t## is a 1-1 function of ##r##. Otherwise, suppose ##t=r^2##. Then ##r=\pm\sqrt{t}##, which isn't a function. I...
  22. F

    I How does the angle γ change under inversion in Euler angles?

    The well known Euler angles (αβγ) are defined as in the image It is easy to see that under inversion α → π+α β → π-β but I cannot figure out how γ transforms under inversion. actually I am stuck at the question whether I should measure it from the same intersection line ON (thence γ →π+γ) or...
  23. A

    I How inversion layer shields electric field?

    This question is somewhat relating to electronics but I think it fits better with physics. The leccture here (slide 13) shows that the gate to body capacitance (Cgb) in linear region is 0. However, there is no explanation at all. I tried to find the explanation from the reference book and got...
  24. Kefeng

    Question about CMA-ES step size sigma

    Hi everyone, I am new here. I am working in geophysics and I would like to invert for a simple layered velocity model using CMA-ES optimization method. I downloaded the purecmaes.m code in Matlab here: https://www.lri.fr/~hansen/cmaes_inmatlab.html, and also implemented one in Fortran 90. I...
  25. F

    A Crystal field when inversion is absent

    I find in many textbooks that when expanding the crystal field in spherical harmonics, those terms of odd ranks do not appear in the expansion even if the crystal lacks an inversion centre such as the tetrahedral crystal field. Why is that? and when one should include spherical harmonics of odd...
  26. O

    I Inversion and Isenthelpic Curves for van der Waals EOS

    When I plot the isenthalpic curves in T-P plane, I see isenthalpic curves are not well defined in the lower temperature region in T-P plane. Inside the inversion curve Joule-Thomson coefficient is positive so gas cools and outside of the inversion curve Joule-Thomson coefficent is negative so...
  27. kq6up

    A Potential Energy Curve for Ammonia Inversion?

    For my Quantum II class I am working on a paper about masers. I am using a naive model (a coupled pair of infinite potential wells), and I would like to find out where I can find a graph of the inversion potential energy curve. This would be a simple one dimensional curve of the potential...
  28. kq6up

    Avagadro Software and The Inversion Potential of Ammonia

    Would it be possible to get a 1 degree of freedom (the saddle line of the potential energy surface) potential energy curve from the inversion of Ammonia from the software Avagadro (I have just started playing with this software yesterday)? I am doing a physics paper for a graduate QM class, and...
  29. TheOfficialAB

    LASERs: Why is population inversion required for amplification?

    Hi, I'm doing a module on quantum optics and lasers. Most of the texts and online source I have read simply state that 'population inversion is essential for amplification in laser operation'. My question is, why? Amplification/Gain is essentially the result of stimulated emission. Can't...
  30. L

    MHB Rieman inversion formula in Laplace transform

    Hello everybody! I'm sorry if it's not the right section to post in. I'm trying to solve this exercise: \frac{1}{2i\pi}*\int_{8-i\infty}^{8+i\infty}\frac{e^{s(t-5)}}{(s+4)^2}ds The request is to find the result in function of t I know i must use the Riemann inversion formula, and so the request...
  31. L

    Noether's theorem -- Time inversion

    Noether's theorem said that because of homogeneity in time the law of conservation of energy exists. I am bit of confused and I am not sure is also time inversion some consequence of this. For example in the case of free fall we have symmetry ## t \rightarrow -t##. I am sometimes confused of...
  32. enrikofermi

    How can I correctly perform Fourier inversion of function S(q) to get G(r)?

    Hi all. I have to do Fourer inversion of an equation 7.46 but I don't know how to do that. If anybody has any idea it wolud be very helpfull. Inversion of S(q) is G(r).
  33. D

    Light Waves & Wave Inversion: Understand the Phenomenon

    Do lightwaves experience wave inversion after striking a mirror?
  34. K

    What is wrong with my matrix inversion?

    Homework Statement Find the inverse of the matrix: 1 1 -1 2 -1 1 1 1 2 Homework Equations One must be aware of the identity matrix, as well as how add one row to another with matrix multiplication, for example, the matrix 1 0 0 k 1 0 0 0 1 would add k times the first row to the second...
  35. genxium

    What is the parity inversion of antisymmetric tensor

    First by antisymmetric tensor I mean the "totally antisymmetric tensor" like this: ##\epsilon^{\alpha\beta\gamma\delta} = \left\{ \begin{array}{clcl} +1 \;\; \text{when superscripts form an even permutation of 1,2,3,4} \\ -1 \;\; \text{when superscripts form an odd permutation of 1,2,3,4} \\ 0...
  36. L

    Finding T1 Inversion Recovery NMR

    Homework Statement Homework Equations It = I∞ (1-2 exp -τ/T1) Or I've got T1 = τn/ln2 where τn is the τ at node (M = 0) The Attempt at a Solution So would I plot τ vs amplitude on a graph and then what? Everything I've found seems to use a programme to do it?
  37. X

    Inversion of incomplete elliptic integral of the second kind

    Hello I hope this is the right place to ask this question. For my thesis I need a way to invert a incomplete elliptic integral of the second kind. I believe the Jacobi elliptic functions are inverse of the elliptic integral of the first kind. The calculation I'm doing is symbolic so a...
  38. E

    Solving the Inversion Problem with RGB Filters

    I have some measurement data for known spectrum. Now I want to establish a algorithm for later measurement of unknown spectrum. I attached the equation in the image. r g b filters apply to the true spectrum I I am looking for. R G B are the measurement getting from the device. I1, I2, I3 are...
  39. S

    Spin inversion under dipole-dipole interaction of fermions

    Homework Statement Consider two spin 1/2 particles interacting through a dipole-dipole potential \hat{V} = A\frac{(\hat{\sigma_1} \cdot \hat{\sigma_2})r^2 - (\sigma_1 \cdot \vec{r})(\sigma_2 \cdot \vec{r})}{r^5} If both spins are fixed at a distance d between each other, and at t = 0 one of...
  40. S

    What is Impedance Inversion in Transmission Line

    Hello to experts! What is impedance inversion in quarter wave transformer? I need definition not a concept, not explanation, not description. But a precise and point definition. Thank you very much.
  41. H

    Proof of Lagrange inversion theorem

    Hi I am unable to find the proof of the Lagrange inversion formula as given in http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Lagrange_inversion_theorem#Theorem_statement I have searched all over the internet as well as the original paper published by Lagrange. Still could not find it. Any help would be...
  42. A

    Population Inversion: Pumping Wavelength for 3.5 eV Energy Difference

    Homework Statement In order to achieve population inversion between two states that are separated by an energy difference of 3.5 eV, what wavelength of pumping should be used. Homework Equations Not sure. The Attempt at a Solution I have no idea where to start with this one...
  43. F

    Understanding Inversion Symmetry and Space Symmetry Breaking

    1. P. Marder ever said that there is no special symmetry results in two dimensional oblique lattice. But it still possesses inversion symmetry. r → -r How to understand r → -r? 2. Many book ever states that space symmetry broken by atomic displacement can bring ferroelectricity. But why...
  44. K

    MHB Exact inversion of matrix complexity (by Gaussian elimination)

    I would like to check if what I have done is correct. Please, any input is appreciated. **Problem statement:** Consider a non-singular matrix $A_{nxn}$. Construct an algorithm using Gaussian elimination to find $A^{-1}$. Provide the operation counts for this algorithm. **My attempted algorithm...
  45. E

    Digital or Analog Signal Inversion

    I would like to take an incoming signal (digital or analog), invert it, and send it to an antenna. What is a simple high-level approach to this?
  46. E

    Nearly Singular Matrix Inversion

    Hi, I have a matrix that is nearly singular, so I am using singular value decomposition (SVD) approach for inversion. In this case an N-by-N matrix can be written as: \mathbf{H}=\mathbf{U}\Sigma\mathbf{V}^H Then the inverse can be written as...
  47. E

    MATLAB How to do Abel inversion using Matlab

    hi,everyone. How to do Abel inversion using Matlab? what is the algorithm? I read something in wiki,but I have no idea how to perform it! anything helpful would be highly appreciated.
  48. G

    Matrix Inversion for Variation of Parameters

    I am working on the following problem: Can someone please show or explain the steps to invert the phi matrix? I've given it a few tries, but I can't reach what the book has for the answer. Please help! Thanks
  49. A

    Matrix inversion with complex numbers? or faster way?

    matrix inversion with complex numbers?? or faster way? Homework Statement The Attempt at a Solution i managed to get the answer, but it took me like 30min. to work this by hand. i probably worked it differently than my instructor's method above, but wat i did was get the coefficients of V...