In the physical sciences, a phase is a region of space (a thermodynamic system), throughout which all physical properties of a material are essentially uniform. Examples of physical properties include density, index of refraction, magnetization and chemical composition. A simple description is that a phase is a region of material that is chemically uniform, physically distinct, and (often) mechanically separable. In a system consisting of ice and water in a glass jar, the ice cubes are one phase, the water is a second phase, and the humid air is a third phase over the ice and water. The glass of the jar is another separate phase. (See state of matter § Glass)
The term phase is sometimes used as a synonym for state of matter, but there can be several immiscible phases of the same state of matter. Also, the term phase is sometimes used to refer to a set of equilibrium states demarcated in terms of state variables such as pressure and temperature by a phase boundary on a phase diagram. Because phase boundaries relate to changes in the organization of matter, such as a change from liquid to solid or a more subtle change from one crystal structure to another, this latter usage is similar to the use of "phase" as a synonym for state of matter. However, the state of matter and phase diagram usages are not commensurate with the formal definition given above and the intended meaning must be determined in part from the context in which the term is used.
How electric distributers achieve equal phases load, is this done by itself?
Unequal situation hapend only in failure ?
That depend on load, not source, but they cant control load.. so how?
When we try to see if the weak sector is CP invariant, we CP transform all the fields in the charged interactions terms and we get a condition involving the elements of the CKM matrix and the arbitrary phases of the CP transformed fields:
$$V_{ij} = V^*_{ij} \, e^{i(\xi_W + \phi_{d_j} -...
Hi,
I'm looking to improve the precision of a system over a several hour cycle of operation of +50°C operation.
The mass is ~11g and is suspended below the balance via a factory provided point. The "sample" is enclosed within a large borosilicate flask 150mm dia x 450 mm height that is trace...
Here's the simplest example of decoherence I can think of. (I will drop normalizing factors for ease of typing.)
Start with a state ##|\psi\rangle = |0\rangle + |1\rangle##. Measure it in the basis:
$$|+\rangle = |0\rangle + |1\rangle, |-\rangle = |0\rangle - |1\rangle$$
It will always...
Hello all, I have a random sequences question and I am mostly struggling with the last part (e) with deriving the marginal pdf. Any help would be greatly appreciated.
My attempt for the other parts a - d is also below, and it would nice if I can get the answers checked to ensure I'm...
Does anyone know when it was first realized that a heliocentric model of the cosmos should show the phases of Venus in the way Galileo saw them in the 17th century.?Was it known in the time of Aristarchus or did people only realize this was a consequence of helicoentrism later on, perhaps only...
Scientists finally created a 2D Supersolid! There existence has been predicted since the 60’s and now we have them. The scientists who created it don’t really know what it could be used for as it’s so much in the infancy stages, it’s practically a zygote. As an aspiring futurist, I was wondering...
I think I've got the numerator part figured out, but I'm really stuck on what to do with those negative phases in the last term and how to get this to all come together in the end. I feel like I must have made a mistake somewhere, but can't find it. Thanks in advance for the help!
The immediate thing i did here is
## \Delta \varphi = k(\Delta x) ##
Interesting enough for a topic, if you use this equation you end up wrong like me, the answer is not D.
Not sure what is the problem.
#Can somebody please explain what is the difference between single phase and homogeneous phase in context with thermodynamics?
#Also in the fundamental relations in thermodynamics like dg=vdp-sdT , it says this is applicable to homogeneous phase of constant composition.
Isn't this equation...
Suppose I decompose a discrete audio signal in a set of frequency components. Now, if I would add the harmonics I got, I would get the original discrete signal. My question is: if I would randomize the phases of the harmonics first, and then add them, I would get a different signal, but would it...
Afternoon all,
Hopefully somebody can help me, I'm doing my final year project and it's looking at the effect of heat treatment on in17, when I run an XRD scan I found that I all the phases sort of hid behind the matrix and so can't really make them out.
So I've been looking at using the SEM...
Assuming we have a 3 phase motor I've always wondered why is it that the rotor spins rather than just being compleltly pulled towards the direction of the phase or the electromagnet? What causes that angular movement?
Homework Statement: relation between qft and statistical physics
Homework Equations: domains with equal values
I read a french paper about Kenneth Wilson.
i translate several sentences (with google):
it was demonstrated in 1960 by Kenneth Wilson that renormalization formed an incongruous...
Assume all the usual things for the usual things for the geometric phases: A Hamiltonian that depend on external parameters, Adiabatic evolution, cyclic evolution in parameter space and all that
If through the evolution in parameter space there is no energy level crossing, then a eigenvector of...
What are the differences between carbon dioxide solubility (miscibility, reaction) in liquid water when in gaseous (<38 bar) and liquid (>38 bar) phase? The temperature in my experiments is usually between 0 and 5°C. The stirring speed is around 500 rpm.
Is the solubility given apart from...
Dear All
I am trying to understand the following paper for Kitaev :" Periodic table for topological insulators and superconductors", But i am founding it so hard. Can anyone help me to understand it?
Thank you.
I'm currently in the process of selecting gas mixtures to calibrate a gas chromatograph. One of the gas mixtures I'm interested in has the following composition by percent volume:
methane (CH4): 95%
carbon dioxide (CO2): 1%
butane (C4H10): 1%
acetylene (C2H2): 1%
nitrogen (N2): 2%
The gas...
Here is an interesting paper where they uncover new dualities by studying adjoint QCD in 2 + 1 dimensions.
https://arxiv.org/pdf/1710.03258.pdfPhases Of Adjoint QCD_3 And Dualities
by Jaume Gomis, Zohar Komargodski, and Nathan Seiberg
We study 2+1 dimensional gauge theories with a...
Hello!
I will be attending a course on condensed matter physics with emphasis on geometrical phases and I was wondering if the are any good books on gauge transformations, gauge symmetry and geometrical phases that you know of.
Thanks in advance!
Hello Forum,
I am reviewing water and its 3 phases (solid, liquid and gas).
a) At the triple point, water can be in the three phases simultaneously. Does that mean that for a certain amount of water, say 30grams, we would find, approximately, 10 grams of liquid water, 10 grams of ice and 10...
Hi,
Could I please get some conformation and clarification:
So the more phases an inverter has, the less ripple will be on the DC bus, and the higher the switching frequency the inverter is operating at, the closer the approximation is to a sine wave. These are the advantages?
But what are the...
My first question is: Shouldn't the lunar phases be thrown off by Earth's orbit of the sun? As in, after 6 months of orbit, since we are on opposite sides of the sun, the phases would be reversed so that the moon being in the same position relative to the Earth as it was before the 6 months...
Hello, every one! I'm studying the Section 9.2 - Phase Equilibrium of "Classical and Statistical Thermodynamics" written by Carter.
In equation (9.21) and (9.22)
He said:
dS_{A}=\frac{1}{T_{A}}(dU_{A}+P_{A}dV_{A}-\mu _{A}dn_{A})-----(9.21)
dS_{B}=\frac{1}{T_{B}}(dU_{B}+P_{B}dV_{B}-\mu...
phase diagrams show the change of the state when temperature or pressure are modified. to achieve this, is necessary heat, but my questions is: would plasma state be described in this diagrams? is this figure true? because plasma state can be generated by heating.
This is a restatement of a question I have been pondering whilst helping my daughter with GCSE physics. My previous post didn't get me the closure I was after so am trying again.
I have three different GCSE textbooks.
All three have a simple section on the kinetic theory of particles in...
Simple question, What's the advantage of having more phases in an inverter? Like why have 6 or twelve phases? Is it something to do with harmonics? I know that the higher the switching frequency the further off in the freequency spectrum you can push the harmonics, but I can't see that being...
Another piece of compelling evidence of the existence of a heliocentric solar system was the discovery of Venus's phases by Galileo Galilei. How was Galileo able to observe these phases with the Sun in the way? Did he simply view only early waxing and late waning phases? I find it questioning...
Homework Statement
how do you add two waves with the same frequency but different phases?
E1 = 7*sin(omega*t + 70degrees)
E2 = 13*sin*(omega*t + 65degrees)[/B]Homework Equations
Er = E1 + E2[/B]The Attempt at a Solution
I know how to add waves that only have one phase, i.e.
E1 =...
Hello,
I recently went through Griffiths' Quantum Mechanics text and there is a chapter called the Adiabatic Theorem that includes Berry phase and the Aharonov-Bohm effect.
As I found them very interesting, I would appreciate if anyone could provide me with some good sources(books, internet...
I wish to compare energy consumption of my protocol, in embedded systems, in two different phases.
The point is that one phase lasts longer than other (around 130 seconds more). => The longer phase will, of-course, have larger energy consumption since time is a higher quantity in this case.
Can...
Hello,
I cannot find back from school, the formula to use:
A 3 phases 220Vac system, no neutral, 3300W of pure resistance load between L2 and L3, the same load between L1 and L3, nothing between L1 and L2.
What will be I1, I2, I3 the current in the 3 lines of the network?
Thanks in advance
--
Jmp0
Consider the following;
We have Earth with two moons in orbit (discounting the existence of our own moon for the sake of this hypothetical scenario). One moon is the size and mass of Pluto, orbiting around 70,000km from Earth. The other is the size and mass of Pluto's moon, Charon, orbiting...
1. Statement: Prove that the EF and the MF are in phase far away from an oscillating electric dipole
Homework Equations : The oscillatory motion equations for charges (q(t) = q_0sin(ωt) etc.)[/B]
The Attempt at a Solution : Attached PDF file[/B]
I just read an article with a phase diagram, and I am curious if triple point and critical points are SIMPLY theoretical (just in mind) or are they possible in real life (observable in real life)? I understand what they represent, but I am curious.
We have been learning about HPLC and GC machines, and discussing the various types of columns, and I felt that everything was pretty clear and obvious. However, something from yesterday made me a bit confused, so I am hoping for some clarity. If you have a polar stationary phase, and you want...
I have some 3-D model output for a river system that is tidally forced at the entrance. Right now, I'm trying to perform some linear regression on the harmonic constants of various tidal constituents at for several locations along the river compared to the observed tidal data. A linear...
Dear all,
please could you share with me your knowledge about three phases generator? I would like to know exactly how current flow back to generator. For example what is exact way of current from generator (1). What line is using as return path for it. And also do not know how it is possible...
Anyone ,
what the bubble in the fluid will be if we compressed the fluid with high pressure?
for example the fluid is oil with high viscous.
does the bubble change in phase? (condense)
Hello! Why does the moon has different rise and set timing for different phases? And also, why does it rise from different directions during different phases? Help me out please!
Hi all,
Doing some energy monitoring of some various equipment using ct clamps and an diy arduino based energy monitor. I have limited number of arduino inputs available so have been experimenting to boost the capacity of the monitor without using multi arduino. I have found no problem...
Hi, all. In the picture is a question and its solution. Here I can not understand how is the graph
Ln P versus T established why are there only liquid and vapor parts how can be understand
solid phase should not be there and when the properties under the critical ones why is it written as...
Hello,
I was wondering, suppose I had a mixture of a few liquids that were immiscible, say 4.
Now, when calculating the degrees of freedom, I am confused about the number of phases.
I think the number of components is 4, but the number of phases should be 1, liquid, right? Or does each...
amateur question.
referring to the following link
Lunar phase - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
(particularly the video on the bottom right)
I understand what's going on except one thing, why don't the phases of the moon change overnight?
is it the scale of the video that is probably...
transformers -- question about number of phases used
why often single phase and three phase transformers are widely used rather than other phases like four,five phases