What is Commutator: Definition and 274 Discussions
In mathematics, the commutator gives an indication of the extent to which a certain binary operation fails to be commutative. There are different definitions used in group theory and ring theory.
I have the matrix relationship $$C = A^{-1} B^{-1} A B$$ I want to solve for ##A##, where ##A, B, C## are 4x4 homogeneous matrices, e.g. for ##A## the structure is $$A = \begin{pmatrix} R_A & \delta_A \\ 0 & 1 \end{pmatrix}, A^{-1} =\begin{pmatrix} R_A^\intercal & -R_A^\intercal\delta_A \\ 0 & 1...
Using above formula, I could calculate the given commutator.
$$
[\epsilon^{\mu\nu\rho\sigma} M_{\mu \nu}M_{\rho\sigma},M_{\alpha\beta}]=i\epsilon^{\mu\nu\rho\sigma}(M_{\mu \nu}[M_{\rho\sigma},M_{\alpha\beta}]+[M_{\rho\sigma},M_{\alpha\beta}]M_{\mu \nu})
$$
(because...
Suppose ##\lambda_A## and ##\bar{\lambda}_A## are fermions (A goes from 1 to N) and ##\{ \lambda_{A \alpha}, \bar{\lambda}_B^{\beta}\} = \delta_{AB}\delta_{\alpha}^{\beta}##.
Let ##\sigma^i## denote the Pauli matrices.
Does it follow that ##[\bar{\lambda}_A \sigma^i \lambda_A, \bar{\lambda_B}...
I am reading the Schwartz's quantum field theory, p.207 and stuck at some calculation.
In the page, he states that for identical particles,
$$ | \cdots s_1 \vec{p_1}n \cdots s_2 \vec{p_2} n \rangle = \alpha | \cdots s_2 \vec{p_2}n \cdots s_1...
I am going through my class notes and trying to prove the middle commutator relation,
I am ending up with a negative sign in my work. It comes from [a†,a] being invoked during the commutation. I obviously need [a,a†] to appear instead.
Why am I getting [a†,a] instead of [a,a†]?
I am a mechanical engineer and my experience with electrical systems is almost nil.
The concept of a simple DC motor explained here was quite interesting, especially the need of a commutator part:
And then I checked this DIY simple DC motor here and was confused because there was no...
In the boxed equation, how would you get the right hand side from the left hand side? We know that ##H(1,2) = H(2,1)##, but we first have to apply ##H(1,2)## to ##\psi(1,2)##, and then we would apply ##\hat{P}_{12}##; the result would not be ##H(2,1) \psi(2,1)##. ##\hat{P}_{12}## is the exchange...
Hello,
In QM class this morning my Prof claimed that the commutator [𝑥(𝜕/𝜕𝑦), 𝑦(𝜕/𝜕𝑥)] = 0.
However, my classmate and I arrived at x(d/dx) - y(d/dy).
Can someone explain how (or if) our professor is correct?
For a real scalar field, I have the following expression for the field operator in momentum space.
$$\tilde{\phi}(t,\vec{k})=\frac{1}{\sqrt{2\omega}}\left(a_{\vec{k}}e^{-i\omega t}+a^{\dagger}_{-\vec{k}}e^{i\omega t}\right)$$
Why is it that I can discard the phase factors to produce the time...
Given the commutation relation
$$\left[\phi\left(t,\vec{x}\right),\pi\left(t,\vec{x}'\right)\right]=i\delta^{n-1}\left(\vec{x}-\vec{x}'\right)$$
and define the Fourier transform as...
We want to show that ##[\hat{ \vec H}, \hat{ \vec L}_T]=0##. I made a guess: we know that ##[\hat{ \vec H}, \hat{ \vec L}_T]=[\hat{ \vec H}, \hat{ \vec L}] + \frac 1 2 [\hat{ \vec H}, \vec \sigma]=0## must hold.
I have already shown that
$$[\hat{ \vec H}, -i \vec r \times \vec \nabla]= -...
This exercise was proposed by samalkhaiat here (#9). I am going to work using natural units.
OK I think I got it (studying pages 46 & 47 from Mandl & Shaw was really useful) . However I took the lengthy approach. If there is a quicker method please let me know :smile:
We first Fourier-expand...
For a given state say ##{l,m_l}## where ##l## is the orbital angular momentum quantum no. and ##m_l## be it's ##z## component...a given state ##|l,m_l> ## is an eigenstate of ##L^2## but not an eigenstate of ##L_x##...therefore all eigenstates of ##L_x## are eigenstates of ##L^2## but the...
So while thinking about motors this suddenly struck me,
So as the universal series wound motor is spinning there is always some arcing going on around the place where the brushes contact the copper segments that slide past them, I assume this is at least partly because as each coil pair of the...
I want to make certain that my proof is correct:
Since ## P^2 = P_\nu P^\nu=P^\nu P_\nu ##, then ## [P^2,P_\mu]=[P^\nu P_\nu,P_\mu]=P^\nu[P_\nu,P_\mu]+[P^\nu,P_\mu]P_\nu=[P^\nu,P_\mu]P_\nu=g^{\nu\alpha}[P_\alpha,P_\mu]P_\nu=0 ##, since ## g^{\nu\alpha} ## is just a number, I can bring it...
I found a theorem that states that if A and B are 2 endomorphism that satisfies $$[A,[A,B]]=[B,[A,B]]=0$$ then $$[A,F(B)]=[A,B]F'(B)=[A,B]\frac{\partial F(B)}{\partial B}$$.
Now I'm trying to apply this result using the creation and annihilation fermionics operators $$B=C_k^+$$ and $$A=C_k$$...
Hi All,
I try to prove the following commutator operator Identity used in Harmonic Oscillator of Quantum Mechanics. In the process, I do not know how to proceed forward. I need help to complete my proof.
Many Thanks.
I got as far as:
$$[\hat \phi(x), \hat \phi(y) ] = \int \frac{d^3p}{(2\pi)^{3}(2E_p)}(\exp(-ip.(x-y) - \exp(-ip.(y-x))$$
Then I simplified the problem by taking one of the four-vectors to be the origin:
$$[\hat \phi(0), \hat \phi(y) ] = \int \frac{d^3p}{(2\pi)^{3}(2E_p)}(\exp(ip.y) -...
Li=1/2*∈ijkJjk, Ki=J0i,where J satisfy the Lorentz commutation relation.
[Li,Lj]=i/4*∈iab∈jcd(gbcJad-gacJbd-gbdJac+gadJbc)
How can I obtain
[Li,Lj]=i∈ijkLk
from it?
I have insertet the equations for H and P in the relation for the commutator which gives
$$[H,P] = [\sum_{n=1}^N \frac{p_n^2}{2m_n} +\frac{1}{2}\sum_{n,n'}^N V(|x_n-x_n'|),\sum_{n=1}^N p_n]
\\ = [\sum_{n=1}^N \frac{p_n^2}{2m_n},\sum_{n=1}^N p_n]+\frac{1}{2}[\sum_{n,n'}^N...
It's easy to show that ##[\Delta A, \Delta B] = [A,B]##. I'm specifically having issues with evaluating the bra-ket on the RHS of the uncertainty relation:
##\langle \alpha |[A,B]|\alpha\rangle = \langle \alpha |\Delta A \Delta B - \Delta B \Delta A|\alpha\rangle##
The answer is supposed to be...
Assume ##P_1## and ##P_2## are two projection operators. I want to show that if their commutator ##[P_1,P_2]=0##, then their product ##P_1P_2## is also a projection operator.
My first idea was:
$$P_1=|u_1\rangle\langle u_1|, P_2=|u_2\rangle\langle u_2|$$
$$P_1P_2= |u_1\rangle\langle...
Hello guys, I have a question regarding commutators of vector fields and its pushforwards.
Let me define a clockwise rotation in the plane \,\phi:\mathbb{R}^2\rightarrow\mathbb{R}^2 \,.\; [\,\partial_x\,,\,\partial_y\,]=0 \,, \;(\phi_{*}\partial_x) = \partial_r and \,(\phi_{*}\partial_y) =...
I'm having a little trouble proving the following identity that is used in the derivation of the Baker-Campbell-Hausdorff Formula: $$[e^{tT},S] = -t[S,T]e^{tT}$$ It is assumed that [S,T] commutes with S and T, these being linear operators. I tried opening both sides and comparing terms to no...
Hi,
I'm just starting to read Wald and I find the notion of the commutator hard to grasp. Is it a computation device or does it have an intuitive geometric meaning? Can anyone give me an example of two non-commutative vector fields?
Thanks!
Homework Statement
[G,G] is the commutator group.
Let ##H\triangleleft G## such that ##H\cap [G,G]## = {e}. Show that ##H \subseteq Z(G)##.
Homework EquationsThe Attempt at a Solution
In the previous problem I showed that ##G## is abelian iif ##[G,G] = {e}##. I also showed that...
Does anybody know of examples, in which groups defined by ##[\varphi(X),\varphi(Y)]=[X,Y]## are investigated? The ##X,Y## are vectors of a Lie algebra, so imagine them to be differential operators, or vector fields, or as physicists tend to say: generators. The ##\varphi## are thus linear...
Homework Statement
Show that ##[\hat{L} \cdot \vec{a}, \hat{L} \cdot \vec{b}] = i \hbar \hat{L} \cdot (\vec{a} \times \vec{b})##
Homework Equations
##[\hat{L}_i, \hat{L}_j]= i \hbar \epsilon_{ijk} \hat{L}_k ##
The Attempt at a Solution
[/B]
Maybe a naive attempt, but it has been a while. I...
1. The problem statement
I want to write the angular momentum operator ##L## for a 2-dimensional harmonic oscillator, in terms of its ladder operators, ##a_x##, ##a_y##, ##a_x^\dagger## & ##a_y^\dagger##, and then prove that this commutes with its Hamiltonian.
The Attempt at a Solution
I get...
This is not a homework problem. It was stated in a textbook as trivial but I cannot prove it myself in general. If [A,B]=0 then [A,B^n] = 0 where n is a positive integer. This seems rather intuitive and I can easily see it to be true when I plug in n=2, n=3, n=4, etc. However, I cannot prove it...
Hello PF, I was reading Carroll’s definition of the commutator of two vector fields in “Spacetime and Geometry”, and I’m having (I think) a simple case of notational confusion.
He says for two vector fields, ##X## and ##Y##, their commutator can be defined by its action on a scalar function...
Homework Statement
Homework Equations
[/B]
I believe that ##\frac{\partial x^u}{\partial x^p} =\delta ^u_p ## (1)
##\implies ## (if ##\delta^a_b ## is a tensor, I'm not sure it is?) : ##\frac{\partial x_u}{\partial x^p} = g_{au} \delta ^a_p ## (2)
The Attempt at a Solution
[/B]
sol...
Homework Statement
I have been given a question on how the commutator relates to the paschen back effect the exact question is as follows
Calculate the commutator ##[J^2,L_z]## where ##\vec{J}=\vec{L}+\vec{S}## and explain the relevance of this with respect to the paschen back effect
Homework...
Hi, let ##\gamma (\lambda, s)## be a family of geodesics, where ##s## is the parameter and ##\lambda## distinguishes between geodesics. Let furthermore ##Z^\nu = \partial_\lambda \gamma^\nu ## be a vector field and ##\nabla_\alpha Z^\mu := \partial_\alpha Z^\mu + \Gamma^\mu_{\:\: \nu \gamma}...
Hi, what is the true meaning and usefulness of the commutator in:
\begin{equation}
[T, T'] \ne 0
\end{equation}
and how can it be used to solve a parent ODE?
In a book on QM, the commutator of the two operators of the Schrödinger eqn, after factorization, is 1, and this commutation relation...
Homework Statement
How can you find all inequivalent (non-isomorphic) 2D Lie algebras just by an analysis of the commutator?
Homework Equations
$$[X,Y] = \alpha X + \beta Y$$
The Attempt at a Solution
I considered three cases: ##\alpha = \beta \neq 0, \alpha = 0## or ##\beta = 0, \alpha =...
This question came up in this thread: <https://www.physicsforums.com/threads/how-to-factorize-the-hydrogen-atom-hamiltonian.933842/#post-5898454>
In the course of answering the OP's question, I came across the commutator
$$ \left[ p_k, \frac{x_k}{r} \right] $$
where ##r = (x_1 + x_2 +...
Homework Statement
Show that in the chiral (massless) limit, Gamma 5 commutes with the Dirac Hamiltonian in the presence of an electromagnetic field.
Homework EquationsThe Attempt at a Solution
My first question is whether my Dirac Hamiltonian looks correct, I constructed it by separating the...
Suppose ##A## is a linear operator ##V\to V## and ##\mathbf{x} \in V##. We define a non-linear operator ##\langle A \rangle## as $$\langle A \rangle\mathbf{x} := <\mathbf{x}, A\mathbf{x}>\mathbf{x}$$
Can we say ## \langle A \rangle A = A\langle A \rangle ##? What about ## \langle A \rangle B =...
Hi there,
I have just read that the gauge field term Fμν is proportional to the commutator of covariant derivatives [Dμ,Dν]. However, when I try to calculate this commatator, taking the symmetry group to be U(1), I get the following:
\left[ { D }_{ \mu },{ D }_{ \nu } \right] =\left( {...
Homework Statement
Homework EquationsThe Attempt at a Solution
[/B]
I think I understand part b) . The idea is to move the operator that annihilates to the RHS via the commutator relation.
However I can't seem to get part a.
I have:
## [ P^u, P^v]= \int \int \frac{1}{(2\pi)^6} d^3k d^3 k'...
Homework Statement
Question:
To find/ explain why there exists a continuous lorentz transformation that flips the sign for space-like separation but not time-like.
Homework Equations
Signature ## (-,+,+...) ##
Definition of lorentz transformation:
##x^u=\lambda^u_v x^v ##...
Homework Statement
I am trying to fill in the steps between equations in the derivation of the coordinate representation of the Darwin term of the Dirac Hamiltonian in the Hydrogen Fine Structure section in Shankar's Principles of Quantum Mechanics.
$$
H_D=\frac{1}{8 m^2...
Homework Statement
Show that ##|l, m\rangle## for ##l=1## vanishes for the commutator ##[l_i^2, l_j^2]##.
Homework Equations
##L^2 = l_1^2 + l_2^2 + l_3^2## and ##[l_i^2,L^2]=0##
The Attempt at a Solution
I managed to so far prove that ##[l_1^2, l_2^2] = [l_2^2, l_3^2] = [l_3^2, l_1^2]##. I...