What is Microscope: Definition and 280 Discussions

A microscope (from the Ancient Greek: μικρός, mikrós, "small" and σκοπεῖν, skopeîn, "to look" or "see") is a laboratory instrument used to examine objects that are too small to be seen by the naked eye. Microscopy is the science of investigating small objects and structures using a microscope. Microscopic means being invisible to the eye unless aided by a microscope.
There are many types of microscopes, and they may be grouped in different ways. One way is to describe the method an instrument uses to interact with a sample and produce images, either by sending a beam of light or electrons through a sample in its optical path, by detecting photon emissions from a sample, or by scanning across and a short distance from the surface of a sample using a probe. The most common microscope (and the first to be invented) is the optical microscope, which uses lenses to refract visible light that passed through a thinly sectioned sample to produce an observable image. Other major types of microscopes are the fluorescence microscope, electron microscope (both the transmission electron microscope and the scanning electron microscope) and various types of scanning probe microscopes.

View More On Wikipedia.org
  1. T

    Even Engineers Doodle -- on the ICs they design

    But you better have a microscope to see them! https://www.npr.org/2024/04/16/1242941475/new-generation-chip-art-silicon-doodles-engineers-microchip?ft=nprml&f=1002
  2. Y

    Optical Help with making my own microscope

    Hi everybody I'm new to the forum, I was looking for somewhere I can find out the make of a microscope hoping this could be the right place. I want to find out so I can hunt down objective lenses.
  3. Y

    How Do I Identify My Microscope's Make to Find Compatible Lenses?

    Hi everybody I'm new to the forum, I was looking for somewhere I can find out the make of a microscope hoping this could be the right place. I want to find out so I can hunt down objective lenses.
  4. D

    For fun: How big of a Microscope is needed to see a Planck Length?

    If you had--infinite--resources, material, manpower, energy, but only with current technology, or something that could be learned in a short time, how big of a microscope would it take to see a Planck Length? If there's a current limit, still with infinite resources, how small could you see and...
  5. C

    Microscope Optics: questions and calculations

    For this problem, Distance from objective to object ##𝑑𝑂 = 10.6cm## Distance between the objective and eyepiece ##𝐷 = 34cm## For (b) I got ##d_I = 26 cm## and ##M_1 = -2.4## which means that firsts image is inverted and real For (c) I got ##dI' = 35 cm## and ##M_2 = -1.3##. However, I...
  6. jaketodd

    B Discover the Best Microscope for Sperm Cell Observation | AMScope M158C-E

    I'm not so much interested in how they work, but to buy a ~$200 one with built in video camera that I could save video files of sperm cells moving around. I've heard that needs 400x optical magnification. How about this one? https://amscope.com/products/m158c-e Thanks!
  7. Filip Larsen

    B Weak Equivalence Principle Confirmed by MICROSCOPE Satellite to 10^-15

    https://arstechnica.com/science/2022/09/einstein-wins-again-space-satellite-confirms-weak-equivalence-principle/ See also http://dx.doi.org/10.1103/PhysRevLett.129.121102 (limited access)
  8. bmihalik

    I Using Lenses with Laser Diode Microscope to Reduce Aberrations

    I would like to build a microscope witch can be used with different monochromatic light sources (laser diodes), and this system should has small astigmatic and coma aberration, but keep the chromatic aberration property. Can I use two spherical or ashperical lenses (facing with convex side to...
  9. F

    I Microscope with which atoms can be seen

    The lowest price for a microscope that can... What is the cheapest (no not a cheap one but the cheapest) microscope from which atoms can be seen in? I don't need a big zoom into an atom. If possible I would just a zoom enough to see atoms as tiny spheres no structure. Example bellow (this one...
  10. ThiagoMNobrega

    B Wave function won't collapse under a microscope?

    So what am I doing wrong here? I can clearly observe it, I'm nearly sure I can tell which particles are going throw each slit if I used another laser too. My suspicion is that the electrical current of the photon detector that uses germanium or silicon to detect the particles are influencing the...
  11. Isopod

    Microscope Recommendations: Good value for money and takes photos?

    Hi there! I'm doing a project where I will be making 3 ecospheres (ecosphere = enclosed water ecosystem trapped in a jar) using water & substrate taken from 3 different natural sources. I'm hoping that microscopic life will flourish in these jars because my plan next is to study the lifeforms...
  12. A

    Medical Multiple simultaneous sample observations on a Microscope device?

    Is it possible to design & construct a Microscope (optical or Electron) which can take multiple slides samples instead of a single sample slide at a time?. Possible construction of the Sample Slides target is a circular disc holding say 5-10 sample slides. The Circular disc can be rotated...
  13. B

    I Compound Microscope System: Magnification Power Explained

    Ok so for a compound microscope system like the one below, Magnification power is ## MP = M_T * M_A ##. My present understanding is that ##M_T## refers to the magnification by height ratios of the object through L1, and ##M_A##, in this case, refers to the ratio of unaided and aided angles of...
  14. S

    B What is the Length of a Compound Microscope?

    If we say "length of microscope", which distance does it refer to? Is it: a) the tube length (L), which is the distance between the focal point of objective and focal point of eye piece lens OR b) the distance (d) between objective and eye piece lens Thanks
  15. Philip Koeck

    The magnetic field just above a lens in an electron microscope

    I'm looking for an estimation or simulation of the magnetic field in the horizontal plane just above a typical lens in a transmission electron microscope. A rough cross section of such a lens can be seen here: electron lens - Bing images . The lens is cylindrically symmetric around the vertical...
  16. S

    Imaging resolution for a microscope and eye

    Hello folks, I have the two following questions I'm working on: Q1 An optical microscope uses a lens with NA = 0.7 and a focal length of f = 20 mm. What is the smallest spatial distance that can be resolved if a wavelength of λ = 633nm is used? An iris is introduced in front of the lens with a...
  17. C

    Optical Simple homemade Raman spectrometer / microscope

    Hello everyone, I am attempting to make a Raman spectrometer which can double as a microscope. It uses a 532nm laser for excitation, an infinity-corrected microscope objective to collimate the light, a 200 lines/mm diffraction grating, and a confocal lens pinhole setup. A 5 megapixel camera ...
  18. Axel Togawa

    I Heisenberg Microscope: Exploring Single Photon Diffraction

    In the thought experiment proposed by Heisenberg, a single photon is scattered by the electron that we want to observe, and entering the microscope lens (the photon), it will create a diffraction pattern that gives the uncertainty on the position according to the law of optics. I wanted to ask...
  19. C

    Imaging Emitted Covid 19 Samples with an Electron Microscope

    After many months what comes out of the mouth and nose of someone infected with Covid 19 has not been directly observed. A single virus particle of Covid 19 is about 120 nanometers in diameter. This means that to see the virus, visible light wavelengths of 400 nm to 700 nm are too long to...
  20. A

    I Transmission electron microscope beam focusing

    So I'm reading up on this device and what I get is that in all electron guns once the electrons are emitted they would tend to repel one another so in order to make the beam focused instead of spread out across, one uses magnetic fields in the electron microscope, So after the focused beam hits...
  21. fluidistic

    Amateur microscope mostly for children

    When I was a child I used to have a microscope. I don't remember the maximum zoom it could do. Nowadays when I look up for amateur microscopes on the web, they seem to go up to either 1000x or 2000x. Do you think it's enough to get some fun by looking at bugs and cells of onions for example? The...
  22. Manasan3010

    Refractive index using a traveling microscope

    For finding refractive index of a glass block, we use n=real-depth / apparent-depth For calculating apparent depth microscope is raised vertically until a clear focus is obtained of the underlying mark beneath the glass blob. Given that microscope is perpendicular to the mark, Wouldn't the...
  23. J

    What is the standard distance for viewing with a microscope?

    Perhaps this should be in the Biology forum, but I'm thinking that you physicists can give a more reliable answer here. The magnification equation for microscopes is: M = I/A (image size divided by actual size). This seems very easy and intuitive. By this equation, if the image size was...
  24. JulioHC

    How to measure the magnification of a microscope in the lab

    Good evening, In the following weeks, I will be performing a lab project during three sessions and one of the things that I have to do is to create a microscope using a set of lenses (We are using a 50mm focal length convergent lens as the objective and a 100m focal length convergent lens as...
  25. B

    B Why Do We See Distinct Lines in Atomic Emission and Absorption Spectra?

    just watched this how i don't see the atoms quantum tunnel instaneneously to another location? how come i don't see waves? how come i see billiard balls?
  26. Edge5

    A Scanning Tunneling Microscope I-V curve

    I know that scanning tunneling microscopy (STM) I-V curve is exponential for a conducting sample. How would it look like if I had a semiconductor and a non-conductor sample?
  27. Wrichik Basu

    B Which ray diagram is correct for a Compound microscope?

    Here are two ray diagrams for compound microscope, the first one proposed by the book, and the second one recommended by the teacher: In the first image, the light rays form a real image A'B', which becomes the virtual object for the eyepiece. See, the original rays are carried forward to...
  28. G

    Equation for the resolving power of a microscope?

    Hi I'm reading through a Quantum Mechanics textbook called Quantum Mechanics by Book by Alastair I. M. Rae and in the opening chapter it talks about the Heisenberg uncertainty principle and talks about how a measurement of position of a particle causes an uncertainty from the momentum due to the...
  29. chemisthypnos

    Observe pH Damaged Cells Via Microscope?

    For an upcoming research project, I intend to apply different solutions to cultures of cells. How would I determine if the cells are incurring damage from the solutions due to the pH of the solutions as I observe them under my compound microscope?
  30. TheSodesa

    The focal length of a microscope eyepiece

    The question: -------------------- The length of a microscope pipe is $L=160\,\rm mm$, the transverse magnification of its objective $M_o = 40\times$ and the diameter $d_o = 5\,\rm mm$. As for the ocular/eyepiece, its magnification is $M_e = 10\times$. 1. Find out the focal length of the...
  31. Hydrous Caperilla

    Simple microscope and convex lens

    When does a convex lens behhave as a simple microscope and what are the conditions for the object and the lens to act if there are any?Is the magnifying power of microscope fixed beyond which it will act as a regular convex lens
  32. G

    Are the electrons in an electron microscope coherent?

    In an old fashioned electron microscope (the type I was meant to understand at university 50 years ago), are the electrons coherent, or do we just consider an electron interfering with itself? If they are coherent, how are they made coherent?
  33. H

    B Can we build a microscope to see an atom?

    If someone, were to theoretically build a microscope that could see an atom what, would the electrons be doing?...would they be orbiting the nucleus at a steady speed or would they be popping in and out of existence in their shells in different locations due to the uncertainty principle?
  34. L

    Is this microscope good for looking at cells and other small things?

    Hi all So I am planning to save up for this microscope because I am trying to 'upgrade' from my microscope whos max magnification is 1000x (keep in mind Its not clear at max the highest it would be a good image at is 500x)...
  35. K

    X-Ray Shielding (Scanning Electron Microscope)

    Hallo everyone, I have a question about X-Ray shielding in a scanning electron microscope and I hope you can help me! The topic is that when electrons hit the specimen, characteristic radiation up to 10keV is generated. This radiation is blocked/decelerated my the surrounding tower and chamber...
  36. G

    Index of when refraction/optics question

    The question A microscope is focused on a black dot. When a 1.20 cm -thick piece of plastic is placed over the dot, the microscope objective has to be raised 0.380 cm to bring the dot back into focus. What is the index of refraction of the plastic Relevant equations/ideas...
  37. ryanuser

    Traveling microscope vs vernier calliper

    Hi, there is a question I am not sure about. We are trying to measure the width(thickness) of water as it is streaming from the tap and draining into the sink, my question is why use of vernier calliper is inappropriate and traveling microscope is suitable for this measurement? Thanks
  38. kenok1216

    Angular resolution of microscope

    Homework Statement Homework Equations θ =1.22λ/d The Attempt at a Solution for (a) θ =1.22λ/d θ =1.22(579nm)/(1.2cm)[/B] θ =5.8865x10^-5 degree= 1.027x10^-6 rad but the answer =2x10^-3rad , for the micorscope, the formula of angular resolution is different? i...
  39. S

    Optimizing PMT Circuit: Resistor Values for Secondary Electron Detection in SEM

    Hello, I have a 12 pin Photomultiplier tube and am wondering how many ohms should be on the resistors. There would be 11 resistors (1 between each pin) and no capacitors, anode grounding for DC operation, 1000volts, only to go off to an op amp for signal processing. This design is shown in...
  40. nilesh_pat

    About atom's image in electron microscope

    In Hydrogen atom, in center Proton and Electron revolving it. My question, is that enclosed in a cell, actually what we see in electron microscope. Regards Nilesh
  41. D

    Optical instruments: Microscope and Telescope

    What are the different formulas for the calculation of magnifying power of a microscope and a telescope? And how would we use the sign conventions in them?
  42. N

    How to Operate a CIMARK Digital Microscope with a 26pin Jack?

    Hello everyone, I would like to ask if anyone has ever know about this one. I have no idea how to make it run. The jack on top of it is 26pin inside but the cable is 26pin plus 2 more very black wire welding on each side of the Jack. I remove the Lense i see the small camera with name is CIMARK...
  43. S

    How to create microscope videos?

    Hello, I don't have a microscope yet, but I want to buy one, sometime in the future. I was wondering if anyone can teach me or recommend me some good resources for learning how to make microscope videos. I would like to compare the difference between cooking oil and cold press cooking oil for...
  44. Y

    Use Raman microscope to measure quantum yield

    We have a Renishaw inVia confocal Raman microscope. Currently I am using it to study photoluminescence. I have a very thin film with certain thickness (e.g. 60nm and 120nm). It turns out that they (60nm and 120nm) have different emission spectra. Here comes the question: Can I divide the...
  45. S

    Uncovering the Strength of SEM's Electromagnetic Lenses

    Does anybody happen to know the strength of the electroMAGNETic lenses of a scanning electron microscope? I was thinking of using solenoid coils, which would be enough if I am willing to increase the focal distance, but the lenses on SEM's seem far larger.
  46. CollinsArg

    Heat: Microscope - Seeing Matter React

    Hi! is there any microscope or images in which we can see how a matter reacts as it is heated? And how was it proved that when matter is heated their particules vibrate faster?. Tahnk you!
  47. A

    Estimating the depth resolution of confocal microscope.

    Homework Statement [/B] Homework Equations Resolution lateral = 1.2λ f/dThe Attempt at a Solution R lens 1 = 1.2(750nm) (1/5) = 180nm R lens 2 = 1.2(750nm) (3/5) = 540nm However these are laterial resolutions. If it possible to find the depth resolution from this or am I missing a formula...
  48. FritoTaco

    Microscope converging lens problem

    Homework Statement A microscope slide is placed in front of a converging lens with a focal length of 2.44 cm. The lens forms an image of the slide 12.9 cm from the slide. a. How far is the lens from the slide if the image is real? Homework Equations 1/f = 1/di + 1/do The real equation (but...
  49. A

    Find the axial resolution achieved for confocal microscope

    Homework Statement 2. Homework Equations F-number is f/d x0 = 1.2λ(fnumber) The Attempt at a Solution [/B] Fnumber1 = 0.2 Fnumber2 = 0.6 x01 = 180nm x02 = 540nmThese values seem large for depth resolution, is this correct?