What is Solid state: Definition and 313 Discussions

Solid-state electronics means semiconductor electronics: electronic equipment using semiconductor devices such as transistors, diodes and integrated circuits (ICs). The term is also used for devices in which semiconductor electronics which have no moving parts replace devices with moving parts, such as the solid-state relay in which transistor switches are used in place of a moving-arm electromechanical relay, or the solid-state drive (SSD) a type of semiconductor memory used in computers to replace hard disk drives, which store data on a rotating disk.The term "solid state" became popular in the beginning of the semiconductor era in the 1960s to distinguish this new technology based on the transistor, in which the electronic action of devices occurred in a solid state, from previous electronic equipment that used vacuum tubes, in which the electronic action occurred in a gaseous state. A semiconductor device works by controlling an electric current consisting of electrons or holes moving within a solid crystalline piece of semiconducting material such as silicon, while the thermionic vacuum tubes it replaced worked by controlling current conducted by a gas of particles, electrons or ions, moving in a vacuum within a sealed tube.
Although the first solid state electronic device was the cat's whisker detector, a crude semiconductor diode invented around 1904, solid state electronics really started with the invention of the transistor in 1947. The transistor was invented by John Bardeen and Walter Houser Brattain while working under William Shockley at Bell Laboratories in 1947. Before that, all electronic equipment used vacuum tubes, because vacuum tubes were the only electronic components that could amplify—an essential capability in all electronics.
The replacement of bulky, fragile, energy-hungry vacuum tubes by transistors in the 1960s and 1970s created a revolution not just in technology but in people's habits, making possible the first truly portable consumer electronics such as the transistor radio, cassette tape player, walkie-talkie and quartz watch, as well as the first practical computers and mobile phones. Other examples of solid state electronic devices are the microprocessor chip, LED lamp, solar cell, charge coupled device (CCD) image sensor used in cameras, and semiconductor laser.

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  1. Slimy0233

    Requesting Resources and Animations to understand Solid State Physics

    TL;DR Summary: I need animations to understand physics better. Any links and animations would be very appreciated. I have started learning Solid state physics and I am struggling somewhat to understand and imagine certain things. I feel like this is one area of physics which needs extensive...
  2. R

    Phonon Density of States (PDOS) at Gamma Point

    Hello everyone! I'm trying to replicate phonon density of states (PHDOS) diagrams for some solids using Quantum Espresso. The usual way I do it is the following one: scf calculation at minima (pw.x) Calculation of dynamical matrix in reciprocal space with nq=1 or 2 (ph.x) Calculation of...
  3. M

    I Understanding Diffraction Condition in Kittle's Intro to Solid State Physics

    I am going over the diffraction condition section in Kittle's Introduction to Solid State Physics physics and I am having a hard time understanding why the phase difference angle for the incident wave is positive while the phase angle difference for the diffracted wave is negative. Thank you...
  4. besebenomo

    Einstein solid state model exercise

    I tried to solve it considering the canonical ensemble (since the system is at the equilibrium with temperature T) and started finding the partition function:The problem is I am not sure if I have done it correctly and need help because I don't really know where to check.
  5. P

    What would be the Wigner-Seitz cell of this lattice?

    I know WS cell only contains one lattice point, so we would have to trace bisectors, and obtain some kind of irregular shape. Anyways, I wanted to check if what I did is okay. It is considering a fictitious point as the center of the (non-primitive) unit cell, which would be one of those...
  6. C

    Solid State Solid State Physics by Springer

    I have the opportunity to get a Springer book for free, provided that it is cheaper than 200$. I am considering an introductory one about Solid State Physics, but I have never heard about a valid one from Springer (I know about Kittel, Ashcroft and Simon only). Do you have any suggestion? Thank...
  7. Viona

    Best Solid State Physics Book for Beginners

    TL;DR Summary: Gerald Burns's book: Solid State Physics: is it good for begginers or there are best books? Hello, I am looking for the best book to study solid state physics for begginers. Some one recommended Gerald Burns's book: Solid State Physics. So, what is your opinions about this book...
  8. R

    Does Drain Current Increase if Doping Increases?

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  9. hagopbul

    I Topological question from Ashcroft-Mermin

    Hello : doing some reading in physics and some of it is in solid state physics , in Ashcroft- mermin book chapter 2 page 33 you read " Thus if our metal is one dimensional we would simply replace the line from 0 to L to which the electron were confined by a circle of circumference L. In...
  10. P

    3 Phase Harmonics and Solid State Relay Issues

    I have a 3 phase problem that I think might be applicable to this forum. The setup is equipment which contains 5 resistive heaters (A through E). The unit is powered by 208V 3 phase and each of the heaters are hooked up line to line in an unbalanced configuration as follows: L1-L2: Heater D...
  11. F

    I Gap between introductory physics & solid state physics?

    The left pic is the initial state and the right pics are 2 different descriptions for a metal under electric field E. Are the 2 on the right contradictory and which is correct?
  12. cemtu

    What makes up a "current" in solid state physics?

    If there is some incoming light that has hit electrons of a N-type doped silicon and broke loose these electrons from their covalent bounds and excited them to the conduction band and also excited the electrons in the donor energy level to the conduction band as well, here we know that, the...
  13. M

    The effect of temperature on phosphorescence

    I had read somewhere that as the temperature increases, its lifetime decreases. But there was no further explanation. Of course, I don't know if it's true yet.
  14. M

    An accurate method to determine the band gap

    Summary:: What is an accurate method to determine the band gap? What is an accurate method to determine the band gap?
  15. DrPhysics

    Ibach Luth - Solid State 1.11 (QM model for Van der Waals' equation )

    Hi Everyone, can you guys please help me with the exercise attached? I knot that according to the book, van der Waals interaction is “charge fluctuations in atoms due to zero point motion.” This is correct once you understand that they are not talking about zero point motion of nuclear...
  16. Rzbs

    Solid State A book about the history of solid state physics

    What is the best books about the history of solid state physics? I only found this: Out of the Crystal Maze: Chapters from the History of Solid State Physics by Lillian Hoddeson Are there any other books? Thanks for your suggestions
  17. J

    B Are energy bands in solid state timeless?

    The wave function or Schroedinger equation is timeless, correct? You can reverse the equations and forward it. Our arrow of time comes due to decoherence in macroscopic object. How about energy bands in solid state. Do you consider it as timeless wave function, or is it decohered?
  18. D

    Help with neutron scattering in solid state physics

    Hello fellow physicists, I have a homework assignment which is to make a scientific essay (10-15 pages long) on neutron scattering in solid state physics. Our teacher is kind of the worse and he hasn't specified what he wants it on. He just said what I'm telling you: "An essay on neutron...
  19. dasil12a

    3D Solid State Simulation Software

    How did you find PF?: Google I am studying the mechanical/electrical nature that govern certain nano-fabricated crystalline structures. Can someone with experience please recommend a 3d Solid State Simulation software that will allow me perform the following: Allows individual 3D placement...
  20. R

    Replacing bremsstrahlung tubes with solid-state alternatives?

    What are the reasons X-ray vacuum tubes could not be replaced by solid state alternatives?
  21. S

    Physics Solid State Physics or Quantum Electronics/Optics

    For which field is there more demand in the industry? And is knowledge of quantum electronics/optics useless without having a phd, as I see most job offers ask for a doctorate degree. Are the skills and knowledge from quantum electronics transferable to engineering positions or is what you...
  22. Rzbs

    I Maxwell Boltzmann distribution

    In the Aschcroft & Mermin solid state book there is a curve to compare F.D and M.B distribution. I can't understand the concept of M.B curve; what does mean exactlly when x =0? It means the probability of zero energy for particles is most or ...?
  23. S

    A Laser Ablation of a fused silica surface

    I read in couple of articles, like this one: https://link.springer.com/content/pdf/10.1007/BF00324203.pdf that regions of fused silica surface can be ablated by laser... I have two questions: 1- Why does the ablation occur? 2- does the ablation happens when the laser waist point is under the...
  24. hagopbul

    I Biological solid state physics

    Hello all: I was wondering are we have a name for protein structure , or we consider them amorphous? Any one did a phono propagation in protein molecules ? Protein folding and phonons any relationship? When peptides came together and start to form the protein dose phonons/photon propagation...
  25. patric44

    Some questions about reciprocal lattice vectors

    hi guys our solid state physics professor introduced to us this new concept of reciprocal lattice , and its vectors in k space ( i am still an undergrad) i find these concepts some how hard to visualize , i mean i don't really understand the k vector of the wave it elf and what it represents...
  26. Charlie Cheap

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    I am certain this has been answered...but I missed it. Why do so many guitar players swear by TUBE amps? My son-in-law says they just sound better. Because I was a TV/Radio service tech for 20 years with a degree from Elkins Institute, he asks me why? My guess was, maybe amplifying a signal...
  27. A

    Solid State What is the best online course that follows Kittel for solid state physics?

    Hi, I am currently studying solid-state physics course from Charles Kittel's "introduction to SSP" I searched more on youtube to get lectures to follow the book of Kittel but failed. Really I would appreciate if anybody advises me online source which can help me to comprehend the contents of...
  28. P

    Very simple vector question (solid state)

    Somewhat embarrassingly as a third year undergrad, this question has been completely stumping me for far too long now (2 hours). The solution is 1.42 Å and the working is given as |r2| = 2cos(30)*1/3(2.46) or alternatively |r2| = (1/2|a|)/cos(30) But I cannot grasp where this comes from...
  29. dRic2

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    Hi, I have to study for a solid state physics course and I'm not sure what textbook would be the best. Our professor suggested "Principles of the theory of Solids" by Ziman, or "Solid state physics" by Ashcroft. I'll intend to use both: one I buy, the other one I borrow from the library. But...
  30. H

    Solid state electronics textbooks

    Summary: Please does anyone has a lecture note dat explain solid state electronic I need a lecture note or a textbook dat explain solid state electronic especially band gap Crystal growth Diffusion of semiconductor Fermini level
  31. A

    Relationship between k and orbital phase of solid state?

    I understand that quantum objects have wave and particle properties. I know that k = 2π / lamda. I am simply not understanding the x-axis of a bandstructure plot of E(k) vs. k. I've read parts of a book by Roald Hoffman on this subject. In the book it is shown that there are infinite chain of...
  32. T

    Reciprocal lattice for FCC and diffraction peaks

    My issue is more with the steps to approach rather than the calculations. I was just wondering if someone could confirm my approach to be correct. As it asking for the reciprocal lattice of an FCC I assume this would mean I need to use the points on the BCC to calculate the geometrical...
  33. S

    A Selection rules using Group Theory: many body

    Hello, I am newish in group theory so sorry if anything in the following is not entirely correct. In general, one can anticipate if a matrix element <i|O|j> is zero or not by seeing if O|j> shares any irreducible representation with |i>. I know how to reduce to IRs the former product but I...
  34. John Greger

    A Imaginary part of the dielectric function

    Hi everyone, I was thinking about the complex part of the dielectric function. To my understanding there's good physical explanation of it. is a superimposed description of dispersion phenomena occurring at multiple frequencies. Say I only have the real part such as the one below, and would...
  35. P

    I Free electron gas band structure?

    How can I see, by looking at a band structure if the substance in question can be viewed as a free electron gas (FEG) or not? What characterizes a FEG in a bandstructure plot? Thanks in advance!
  36. P

    I Understanding Band Structure Diagrams

    Hi! I never really understood band structure diagrams. I think they represent the energy of an electron, with the given circumstances, at a k vector. Are the electrons only allowed to be on the lines here? Or can they also be in areas enclosed under/between certain lines? What are some...
  37. confusedius

    Solid State Physics: Draw the Dispersion Relation from the Fermi Surface

    Homework Statement ln the figure below you (b, which is taken from Jenö Sólyom Fundamentals of the physics of solids. Volume 2 chapter 19) see the Fermi sphere of radius k_F inside one section in two dimensions of the Brillouin zone of Na. Draw the dispersion relation E(k) from the I point in...
  38. Z

    "The theoritical minimum" modern equivalent for solid state?

    Hi, for those who don't know, Landau (Lev Davidovitch Landau) had a famous exam called "The theoretical minimum". That exam had to be passed by any future grad-student of his. That test was extremely extensive and difficult, and the student was supposed to be knowledgeable about many fields of...
  39. B

    Calc Electron & Hole Concen in Silicon at 300K

    Homework Statement For silicon at T=300K with donor density ND=2×109cm−3, acceptor density NA=0 and ni=8.2×109cm−3, calculate the equilibrium electron and hole concentration Homework Equations n_0=\frac{N_D-N_A}{2}+\sqrt{\frac{N_D-N_A}{2}^2+n_i^2} p_o=\frac{n_i^2}{n_0} The Attempt at a...
  40. Cocoleia

    Finding nearest neighbour equilibrium distance

    Homework Statement The energy per ion in for CsCl is nearly – (αe 2 /(4πε0)) + 8Ae -(R/ρ) , where α is the Madelung constant and A = 5.64 x 103 eV and ρ = 0.34 Å. Calculate the nearest neighbour equilibrium distance. Homework Equations alpha = 2 ln 2 The Attempt at a Solution I think that...
  41. G

    A Energy gap between energy bands in solid state physics

    I know that Bragg reflection in solid states at the edge of e.g. the first Brillouin Zone causes standing waves at these edges, which creates a gap between the energy bands. In this picture below you can see the probability density of a symmetric (+) and anti-symmetric (-) standing wave. The...
  42. J

    I Bloch Waves within Tight Binding Approximation

    So I thought I understood something well, and then I went to explain it to someone and it turns out I'm missing something, and I'd appreciate any insight you might have. If I think about Bloch's theorem, it states that ψk(r)=eik⋅ruk(r) where uk has the periodicity of the lattice. If u is...
  43. Sagar Rawal

    A What is Mott Transition and its basic Priniciple?

    Hello Everyone, I was really curious to know what really is Mott Transition and How it works. I searched for hours but couldn't find any helpful answer. Somewhere it was suggested that it is a bridge between Quantum and Classical Mechanics and it is due to electron interaction where electron...
  44. R

    I I understanding the meaning of Bloch waves

    Before reading Bloch theorem i read something to get a feeling to what happens to the energy of electron in a periodic potential, in short what i read said: Assuming we have a weak periodic potential from -π/a to π/a for example cos(2πx/a), we can write the electron wave function as: α|k>+β|k'>...
  45. H

    I ABC model for GaAs infrared LED

    Hello, I have found references giving the equation for an ABC model for GaN-based LEDs (see: file://icnas3.cc.ic.ac.uk/lsm16/materials-10-01233.pdf), but I am not able to find any for simple GaAs infrared LEDs (LED information: https://uk.rs-online.com/web/p/ir-leds/8108247/#). Does similar...
  46. M

    Hello World from Tribhuvan University, Nepal

    Hello World! from Tribhuvan University, Nepal
  47. davidbenari

    Engineering Future of the solid state electronics industry

    I'm finishing my degree in Engineering Physics (really just physics). Without a doubt my favorite area of physics is solid state physics. While I love computational and theoretical work, I don't think making a career out of it is as easy as it is in the experimental or engineering side of it. So...
  48. J

    Courses Calc III and Solid State Physics courses in same semester?

    Hi! So I just breezed through a summer Calc II course (took E&M and Modern Physics last semester) and will be approaching Solid State Physics and Calc III this coming semester together. I've taken my school's upper division Linear Algebra course and passed before last semester and continue to do...
  49. Arup Biswas

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    Actually those to subjects are in our syllabus now! Please suggest me some books which will be easy to understand and somewhere maintain my academic syllabus too !