What is Europe: Definition and 175 Discussions

Europe is a continent located entirely in the Northern Hemisphere and mostly in the Eastern Hemisphere. It comprises the westernmost peninsulas of the continental landmass of Eurasia, and is bordered by the Arctic Ocean to the north, the Atlantic Ocean to the west, the Mediterranean Sea to the south, and Asia to the east. Europe is commonly considered to be separated from Asia by the watershed of the Ural Mountains, the Ural River, the Caspian Sea, the Greater Caucasus, the Black Sea, and the waterways of the Turkish Straits. Although much of this border is over land, Europe is generally accorded the status of a full continent because of its great physical size and the weight of its history and traditions.
Europe covers about 10,180,000 km2 (3,930,000 sq mi), or 2% of the Earth's surface (6.8% of land area), making it the second smallest continent (using the seven-continent model). Politically, Europe is divided into about fifty sovereign states, of which Russia is the largest and most populous, spanning 39% of the continent and comprising 15% of its population. Europe had a total population of about 746 million (about 10% of the world population) in 2018. The European climate is largely affected by warm Atlantic currents that temper winters and summers on much of the continent, even at latitudes along which the climate in Asia and North America is severe. Further from the sea, seasonal differences are more noticeable than close to the coast.
European culture is the root of Western civilization, which traces its lineage back to ancient Greece and ancient Rome. The fall of the Western Roman Empire in 476 AD and the subsequent Migration Period marked the end of Europe's ancient history and the beginning of the Middle Ages. Renaissance humanism, exploration, art and science led to the modern era. Since the Age of Discovery, started by Portugal and Spain, Europe played a predominant role in global affairs. Between the 16th and 20th centuries, European powers colonized at various times the Americas, almost all of Africa and Oceania, and the majority of Asia.
The Age of Enlightenment, the subsequent French Revolution and the Napoleonic Wars shaped the continent culturally, politically and economically from the end of the 17th century until the first half of the 19th century. The Industrial Revolution, which began in Great Britain at the end of the 18th century, gave rise to radical economic, cultural and social change in Western Europe and eventually the wider world. Both world wars took place for the most part in Europe, contributing to a decline in Western European dominance in world affairs by the mid-20th century as the Soviet Union and the United States took prominence. During the Cold War, Europe was divided along the Iron Curtain between NATO in the West and the Warsaw Pact in the East, until the revolutions of 1989 and fall of the Berlin Wall.
In 1949, the Council of Europe was founded with the idea of unifying Europe to achieve common goals and prevent future wars. Further European integration by some states led to the formation of the European Union (EU), a separate political entity that lies between a confederation and a federation. The EU originated in Western Europe but has been expanding eastward since the fall of the Soviet Union in 1991. The currency of most countries of the European Union, the euro, is the most commonly used among Europeans; and the EU's Schengen Area abolishes border and immigration controls between most of its member states and some non-members states. There exists a political movement favouring the evolution of the European Union into a single federation encompassing much of the continent.

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  1. Slimy0233

    Is University reputation considered when I am applying for a PhD in Europe?

    Hello there, I am currently studying for a entrance exam to get into a masters program in either IITs (Indian institute of Technology) or NITs (National Institute of Technology) and by the looks of it, it's seeming more and more likely that I would get an NIT. NITs have a slightly bad...
  2. M Yurtsever

    Schools Best Universities in Europe for Superconductivity Research

    Please let me know the best universities for everything about high-temperature superconductivity research
  3. G

    How to sell math/physics textbooks in Europe?

    Hello everyone, I don't know if that's the correct place to ask this (didn't want to pollute the science and math textbooks recommendations), sorry if it is not. I have undergraduate physics and mathematics textbooks that I am trying to sell. I live in Belgium and I bought textbooks...
  4. A

    Black Death pandemic in medieval Europe -- prevention?

    We are told that the Black Death, pandemic that ravaged Europe between 1347 and 1351 was caused by the bacterium Yersinia pestis with rats as the main vehicle of transmission and transmitted to human by the bites of fleas. At those time there were no vaccines, of course. So, what would have been...
  5. rbh

    Schools Undergraduate Aerospace Engineering in Europe: Beyond the UK

    Hello, I'm currently in high school, I want to study aerospace engineering, what are best universities to do undergraduate studies in Europe outside of UK?
  6. A

    How difficult is it to be accepted into grad school in Europe without a BSc?

    Hello, I know there are countless threads asking if you can go to grad school in Physics with an Engineering degree, and I know that the answer depends on my score on the GRE. I am not asking this. What I want to ask is: supposing I have a good GRE score but am coming from Engineering, can I...
  7. russ_watters

    Radiation Increase Detected in Northern Europe

    A radiation increase of isotopes commonly associated with nuclear power production has been detected in Northern Europe in the past few weeks:
  8. Astronuc

    Homo Sapiens in southern Europe, ~44-46K years ago?

    An international team of archaeologists exploring the Bacho Kiro (Бачо Киро) cave in Bulgaria since 2015 determined that a molar (tooth) the found is dated to about 44,000-46,000 years old...
  9. TechieDork

    Other How stable are academia jobs in the Europe and America?

    In Thailand university professors become an unstable job due to a new policy. There's literally zero job security even if you get tenured (become associate ,assistant profs) you'll still get sacked by the authorities if you don't conform to them. Little to No retirement pensions. Some professors...
  10. Antarres

    Physics Finding a PhD program in Europe

    Hello everyone, I am currently working on finding a PhD in Europe. I have nothing against America or Canada, but due to some personal life choices I also have to make along with this PhD, I prefer to move into a country close to my own(Serbia), which means anywhere in Europe. I have recently...
  11. T

    Programs Changing supervisor before starting PHD (Europe)

    I am starting a PHD in Europe at a top institution very soon. In the time since I have accepted the offer I have developed the feeling that I am more interested in working with a different supervisor on a different research area. They are both in the same subfield, but the nature of the research...
  12. K

    Physics Finding entry level jobs in physics in Europe, how to get started?

    Heya:) I'm now 25 years old and working in a corporate job in London for almost a year after graduating with master in Electronic Engineering. However, what I want to do, what I always wanted to do is work in physics, specifically particle, quantum physics. Over the years tho, for different...
  13. ORF

    Open science in Europe

    Hello all, in the near future, open science (open science != open access) will be real in Europe. It is a bit controversial, specially in some fields. What do you think about it? As far as I know, researchers in Astronomy exploit it successfully. But I am not sure about the impact of open...
  14. S

    Admissions Applying to European PhD Programs with a US Masters

    I know this topic has been discussed a lot on this forum, but I had trouble finding an answer to my precise question. Current Understanding: I have read up on the differences between the US and European graduate systems. I understand US merges MS and PhD programs resulting in an average...
  15. Savian

    Courses Is there a calculus requirement in Europe for Biophysics?

    I saw the roadmap of my university of and there is no calculus for biophysics, as soon as there is no calculus for medicine, as for example there is in the US. My question is if there is calculus for biophysics in Europe and in the US. Adendum: there is only calculus in Brazil for medicine in...
  16. Avatrin

    Admissions PhD for autodidacts in Europe

    Hi I have to combine studies with work. However, due to illness, it seems like I may not be able to finish a normal masters degree (my body reacts really badly to the two-three weeks of exam season while working). While my health is improving, I am also becoming impatient. How hard is it to...
  17. S

    Other I started PhD abroad, but would like to get a job

    Greetings, I recently started a PhD in Belgium after resigning from my current job (IT branch) in my home country, Turkey. It was a global company and I had been working there for around 8 months when I resigned. I realized that what I want is a solid job as soon as possible and now I am in the...
  18. J

    Schools Go to Hong Kong for PhD vs. stay in Europe for Masters

    Hi everybody, I have been thinking about this topic for weeks, without getting a definitive answer... I am a physics student in Heidelberg, Germany, just graduated with my Bachelor. I have worked on a research project in Hong Kong (from which I'll likely have my first publication) and have a...
  19. astroman707

    Physics What's the physics scene like in France?

    How much research/development or experimentation in physics is done in France when compared to other countries, both in the EU and abroad? Are there a lot of physics positions outside of academia in France when compared to other countries? How difficult is it for a non-EU citizen to get into...
  20. astroman707

    Physics What should be my plan if I wish to do physics in Europe?

    I'm currently an undergrad in the United States, and plan on pursuing my PhD in physics. I'm most interested in astrophysics and cosmology, and an ideal job would be a faculty position. I really want to work in Europe, and am willing to choose another focus area of physics, as well as different...
  21. M

    Engineering Physics certificate undergraduate in Europe

    Is there any such certificate or something even remotely like this awarded and recognised in Europe to undergrads who do, say, chemical engineering but want to show they have some core physics knowledge as well?
  22. M

    Testing Is there a Europe equivalent to the Physics GRE?

    Is there a qualification undergrad engineers can take during university to show their aptitude for physics and maths? Like a recognised test, aptitude test that they can put in their academic record as well? Anything along these lines at all? Is there one that is recognised in UK, Europe and...
  23. S

    Schools Where to apply for PhD physics in Europe

    I am planning to do a PhD degree in physics since I have recently completed my masters degree, my research field was mainly on cosmology but I am getting interested in some fundamental aspects of physics, like GR and QG. I have tried to apply to some universities in Germany and failed to be...
  24. Smalde

    Programs Best Theoretical Physics Masters Degree in Continental Europe

    Dear All, I am sorry if you consider this question to be repetitive or too general but I have been unable to find sufficient answers on the web and thus I want to see what I can win from asking you guys. First my situation: I finished my Physics' Bachelor in the LMU Munich with good grades...
  25. BWV

    35 measles deaths in Europe last year

    http://www.dw.com/en/measles-cases-soaring-in-europe-who-warns/a-42645701 immunization rates have fallen to 85% for 2-year olds in Italy
  26. MichPod

    School math/physics education in USA/Canada compared to Europe

    For what I know, there is a very big difference (if not a gap) between how math and physics are studied in USA/Canada vs in the Europe (and I am afraid not only in the Europe, but nearly the whole world, Africa and South America included). What makes North American education special is that...
  27. 256bits

    9.7M year old teeth in Europe

    http://worldfossilsociety.org/2017/10/wfs-news-archaeology-fossil-teeth-discovery-germany-re-write-human-history/ It's just some teeth, but the researchers are scratching their head(s), over whether human history will have to be re-written. "The first paper on the find will be uploaded to...
  28. S

    Programs PhD in Particle Physics: UK vs USA Programs

    Hello! I want to do a PhD in Particle Physics and I was wondering what is the difference between UK (and Europe in general) and USA doctorate programs. I see that at Oxford for example you can do a DPhil in 4 years while in USA you need at least 6 and I was wondering why is that. Is it more in...
  29. mfb

    Stargazing Dragon + Falcon 9 visible from Western Europe Saturday

    A rare event. SpaceX launches a bit after the sun sets in Europe tomorrow, so the Dragon capsule and the upper stage of Falcon 9 will still have some sunlight while they fly over Europe. In the following days the Dragon will approach the ISS until it docks on Sunday, this might be visible as...
  30. B

    Programs Undergrad Programs in Physics (in English) in Europe or Asia

    Hi all, I am recently retired and would like to study Physics or Astronomy. I live on a military pension so the US is not going to happen. Tuition is just too expensive at American schools. I am looking for universities that have Physics or Astronomy Bachelor's programs taught in English...
  31. J

    Help changing a plug from Europe to UK.

    Hi there, Please forgive my ignorance, but when it comes to changing plugs, I am a complete novice. I have a European 2-Pin plug, 2.A and 250V (One blue, one brown wire). As I am in the UK, this doesn't work in our sockets. I need to change it over to a 3-Pin, UK plug. But, when I went to...
  32. gabriele feti

    Physics What are the sites in Europe to find job vacancies in Medical Physics?

    Hi at all, I'm an italian medical physicis and i want to try work in any countries of europe. I know only the english system and site: jobs.nhs.uk and ipem. So i want ask: Do you know other sites to search work as medical physicist? I search in any country where i can use english (as such...
  33. M

    Other Professor position in the USA after a PhD in Europe

    Hello, My question is probably geared towards the professors or postdocs reading this forum and concerns the recruitment aspect of the professors in the US. I am a European physics student currently visiting a "top" Californian university. During this short visit (8 months) I have come to...
  34. A

    Programs Comparison of physics masters

    hello everyone, i am currently a physics undergraduate in europe and i am thinking about possible graduate studies either in usa or europe.i want to study theoretical particle physics(string theory,quantum fileds,cosmpology etc.). my first choice is a phd in usa. but as an alternative i am...
  35. D

    Programs PhD in Europe in 3 years? Where come this mythos from?

    Hi everyone, I have read here several times that in Europe you only need 3 years for the PhD, but almost every person that I know has needed between 4-5 years for completion. This added to the 2 years for the master, gives an average of 6-7 years for the PhD, which is the average time in the...
  36. S

    Schools PhD in semiconductors in Europe?

    Hi all, new poster here, I graduated First Class with a BS and an MS, specialisation Electronics, from Calcutta University, scoring University highest grades in my special paper, Electronics. Since then, for the past 15 years, I have been teaching at various schools, colleges, and currently an...
  37. B

    PhD Guidance: Seeking Multiphysics Position in Europe

    Hi all, First time poster here, and currently looking for some good advice. I’m about to finish my master studies in June and therefore I’m looking for advice. I’m searching for a university that has a renowned department/study group in a specific field of study. I hope to join that study...
  38. L

    Programs MSc's degrees in Europe.... (Oceanogr./Atmosp./Planet./Envir.)

    Hello, I am about to complete my BSc in Physics and I'd like to pursue a MSc in a field related to Climate or Environmental Physics. I'd like it to be a mainly experimental curriculum with a decent amount of simulation/data analysis and to be in a country with none to low fees for EU students...
  39. jtbell

    News A new route for refugees and migrants to Europe

    Some of them are now taking the long way around, into Norway via Russia, just a few miles from the Arctic Ocean. There's a catch, though. The Russians don't let them walk across the border, and the Norwegians don't let drivers bring people in who don't have the proper papers. So they ride...
  40. P

    Europe launches satnav orbiters

    Europe launches satnav orbiters Europe sent two satellites into space Friday as it pushes to get its beleaguered Galileo satnav programme back on track. Continue reading...
  41. J

    Master of theoretical physics in Europe: ETH vs. ENS vs. LMU

    Could you please elaborate on their programmes and/or how they compare against one another ? I seem to be interested in the not-so-much-quantum part of theoretical physics, but any input will be very appreciated. *ETH Zurich *Ecole Normale Superieure *Ludwig Maximilian University
  42. C

    Career in Europe vs US (Comparison of academic cultures)

    Where to pursuit academic career as a (non-EU and non-US citizen) physicist? Europe and US have major social, cultural, intellectual, demographic and academic differences. There are pro's and con's for each of course and I am very struggling to decide. I thought that some experienced people on...
  43. T

    A report on a sick man of Europe, Portugal

    I'm from Portugal, and I'm going to present our situation in the last years by not only my perspective, but from a perspective shared by many other Portuguese people, with backing off of data whenever possible. As you may know, in 2011, after 6 years of having a socialist government, we were on...
  44. S

    Admissions Admission to Europe for PhD in theoretical physics

    I finished my Bachelors in Physics with second class. After that I did my Masters in Physics securing 4 out 6 (G.P.A) in 2011. From 2012 to 2014 I was a Junior Research Fellow at one of the top most theoretical physics groups in India and worked on a project in String Theory. I completed my...
  45. I

    Admissions Applying to the Summer or Winter semester in Europe?

    I was wondering if applying to the summer or winter semesters in European countries (esp. France and Germany) would affect my chances of being accepted in the physics fields.
  46. D

    Summer Internships Europe 2015

    I am currently an undergraduate at a small physics school in Texas. I'm a freshman, but I'll be graduating in ~2.5-3 years (lots of ap credits/local uni). My parents are in the process of moving to Europe(Italy), and I really would like to find something physics related I could do for the...
  47. Hercuflea

    Should I go to Europe to do MCF (PhD)

    So it looks like Alcator C-Mod is going to lose its funding this year again, in addition I have heard that they are going to have to decide whether to shut down either DIII-D or NSTX (can anyone confirm?). There aren't very many schools in the US that do MCF research (The only one I can think...
  48. M

    Can I pursue a PhD in string theory in Europe with my undergraduate background?

    Just started my final year of undergrad in Trinity College Dublin, Ireland. In the end I'll have a BA (Hons) in Mathematics, however I've taken a lot of physics classes. I want to go on to do a PhD in theoretical physics, most likely in string theory, in mainland Europe, probably Germany or...
  49. S

    Schools Top universities in Europe for Nuclear Science?

    I was looking through some universities offering Master courses in Nuclear science and other related fields like nuclear energy, nuclear physics, particle physics, theoretical physics, fission/fusion etc. Which are the top 5 universities for masters? I'm confused as to apply to which. I'm...