Menu Home Action My entries Defined browse Select Select in the list MathematicsPhysics Then Select Select in the list Then Select Select in the list Search

quotient group

 Definition/Summary A quotient group or factor group is a group G/H derived from some group H and normal subgroup H. Its elements are the cosets of H in G, and its group operation is coset multiplication. Its order is the index of H in G, or order(G)/order(H).

 Equations

 Scientists

 Recent forum threads on quotient group

 Breakdown Mathematics > Algebra >> Group Theory

 Extended explanation Coset multiplication of cosets g1H and g2H yields the coset g1g2H. Proof: Multiply every element of the two cosets together: $\{ g_1 h_1 g_2 h_2 : h_1 , h_2 \in H \}$ By self-conjugacy, we get $\{ g_1 g_2 h_3 h_2 : h_3 , h_2 \in H \}$ where each h3 need not equal the h1 it was derived from. By closure of H, we get $\{ g_1 g_2 h : h \in H \}$ or the coset g1g2H. There are two trivial cases: H is identity group -> G/H is isomorphic to G H = G -> G/H is the identity group The simplest nontrivial case is for where H has half the number of elements of G. It has one coset, G - H, which is both a left and a right coset, making H a normal subgroup for every possible H with that order. Its coset multiplication table is H * H = H H * (G-H) = (G-H) (G-H) * H = (G-H) (G-H) * (G-H) = H This shows that G/H is Z(2), the 2-element cyclic group.