What is Saturation: Definition and 166 Discussions

Oxygen saturation (symbol SO2) is a relative measure of the concentration of oxygen that is dissolved or carried in a given medium as a proportion of the maximal concentration that can be dissolved in that medium. It can be measured with a dissolved oxygen probe such as an oxygen sensor or an optode in liquid media, usually water. The standard unit of oxygen saturation is percent (%).
Oxygen saturation can be measured regionally and noninvasively. Arterial oxygen saturation (SaO2) is commonly measured using pulse oximetry. Tissue saturation at peripheral scale can be measured using NIRS. This technique can be applied on both muscle and brain.

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  1. mgcgian

    I Photoelectric effect: Saturation voltage

    Hi, I just got two inquiries: My understanding is that the saturation current is reached when the intensity of light is fixed, when the potential difference is at its positive maximum magnitude. Subsequently, whatever kinetic energy store of any photoelectrons, however deep within the metal's...
  2. S

    Why does decreasing evaporator airflow impact an air conditioner's performance?

    The other day I read on a website that a lower evaporator airflow causes lower low pressure side saturation temperatures and higher delta T on an air-conditioner. Now I think I know why a lower evaporator airflow would cause a high delta T. If there is less air moving over the evaporator, the...
  3. A

    A Why is there no saturation current for Si photoanode during OER?

    The Si/Ni photoanode was prepared by sputtering Ni on n-p homojunction Si substrate, and the electrolyte was KOH solution.
  4. nuclearsneke

    Exceeding the saturation temperature of coolant on the clad for PWR

    Hello there. I have been conducting a thermal calculation of a fuel assembly for KLT-40S reactor (a small modular PWR-like reactor installed at the floating nuclear power plant "Akademik Lomonosov" with electric power of 35 MWe.) and obtained some interesting results. It seems that cladding...
  5. B

    Refrigerant state in/at saturation

    Hey everyone. Bit of a random question. So when refrigerant has been fully condensed I understand that it's a liquid, just like a glass of water, albeit under pressure and with no gas above it. When the refrigerant has been superheated it's just a gas, like you would get if you took a sealed...
  6. anubhavsingh

    Reverse saturation current and leakage current in a BJT

    I have been studying Studying Donald Neamen's Electronic Circuits 4th edition and Sedra Smith's Microelectronics 7th edition for quite some time now. I have been self studying. After searching extensively on Internet as well as trying to understand from the books, I have not been able to...
  7. B

    Saturated vapour pressure vapour quality and T-S diagram location

    Hi all., Just hoping to get a better fundamental insight into a few things. If we start with this: http://hyperphysics.phy-astr.gsu.edu/hbase/Kinetic/vappre.html so we have a closed container at a given temperature, then we can find it's saturation pressure. All good so far. In the following...
  8. Y

    Magnetic Saturation of A Piece of Steel

    Hi all. Given a piece of a steel 1018, as an example, with a spicific mass, how can one calculate the magnetic saturation-point of that piece either using mathematical or measuring methods? I've seen graphs stating the saturation points of different ferro-magnetic materials but, I assume, it...
  9. Helena Wells

    Base-collector current in BJT Saturation

    I can't find the formula for the current flowing from the base to the collector in saturation mode of BJT.Any help?There are many references to the emitter current in the forward active mode but none for the base-collector current in saturation mode.Help appreciated.
  10. Helena Wells

    Why does a transistor in saturation act like a short circuit?

    If I have an NPN transistor and let's say we set the base voltage higher than the collector voltage.(Emitter is connected to GND).There are 2 currents flowing in the base because we have two forward biased junctions inside the diode , 1 is the current flowing from emitter to base and 1 is the...
  11. Y

    How does the saturation flux density affect magnetic field strength?

    So I'm confused what the Saturation Flux Density is referring to. Defintion says it is when you no longer get an increase in H-field when increasing external B-field. So, does the satuation flux mean the core can only create fields UP TO that saturation flux, or that it can make a stronger...
  12. G

    Big Data and a Saturation Point

    I ask this with more of a software background than an engineering background, but here I go anyway. Big data is arguably the cultural motif or monograph of the information age. Trends involve immersing ourselves in media of various sorts and processing them at exceptional rates. Of course...
  13. sneakycooky

    Chemistry What precipitates form by mixing 2 saturated solutions?

    At first I thought it was C. A few sources agree with me. The book says D is correct. Here was my reasoning for C: With both salts having a formula of MX3, their [OH-]'s can be compared according to their Ksp values. Tl(OH)3 has a smaller Ksp, so it has a smaller [OH-] at saturation than...
  14. U

    Laser gain and the saturation effects

    Hello, I study laser physics, using "Laser Physics" by Eberly and Milloni. I am confused regarding the notion of gain and the saturation effect. According to the book, the gain is defined as ## g(v) = \dfrac{g_o(v)}{1+I_v/I^{sat}_{v}} ## where ## I^{sat}_{v}## is the saturation intensity and...
  15. M

    Simulink: Saturation characteristic of saturable transformer

    I'm trying to get saturation characteristic of current transformer in simulink... In simulink, there was an example of a current transformer : https://www.mathworks.com/help/physmod/sps/examples/current-transformer-saturation.html And in this document, it said : the CT is assumed to saturate...
  16. Y

    Determining The Magnetic Saturation of A Soft Iron Magnetic Core

    Hello friends. I know there a lot of complex mathematic involved in this subject and I'm not currently very knowledgeable in that area but, in simple terms, what would be the simplest way (theoretical or practical) to determine the magnetic saturation of a cylindrical soft iron magnetic core...
  17. C

    Magnetic saturation and ferrite magnets

    Hi, I believe I understand the basics that permeability of materials is the function of change of flux density with magnetic field. So a non-magnetised material might have a high permeability (easy to increase the magnetic field) while a magnetised mass of the same material might well be close...
  18. C

    What is the magnetic saturation of gadolinium?

    Just interested to know what the flux saturation of gadolinium is, and what is its Curie temperature? I can't find any data on it at all. thanks.
  19. C

    Why does this MOSFET turn on initially in saturation?

    Homework Statement Razavi's book (Analgoue CMOS Integrated Circuits) says that that "as Vin approaches Vth, M1 begins to turn on, drawing current from Rd and lowering Vout. Transistor M1 turns on in saturation regardless of the values of Vdd and Rd." Why is that? I mean that the condition...
  20. U

    Saturation magnetization of iron as a function of temperature

    Hi, I am looking for the temperature dependence of the saturation magnetization of Fe. Any help?
  21. K

    CAM photosynthesis saturation / trying to parse a paper

    Hi - I'm working to accumulate data on photosynthetic flux saturation levels across a range of plant species, and am having a bit of trouble understanding this paper: https://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/epdf/10.3732/ajb.94.8.1344 Table 5 shows PPFD vs. ETR, and shows photosynthesis saturating...
  22. F

    Saturation voltage for photoelectric current

    Hi, I was wondering about saturation current in the photoelectric effect. It is clear to me that for a sufficiently large accelerating potential all of the electrons are gathered by the collecting electrode. Since it is all of them, there cannot be more, and the current won't change if the...
  23. jSwathi

    Cascaded op-amp stages and saturation of final stage

    <Moderator's note: Thread split from another thread as the posts essentially comprise a new question about a new circuit. The problem statement has been formed by combining two of the moved posts. Poster has been notified to create a new thread for a new question> 1. Homework Statement I am...
  24. Y

    Electrical Engineering - Buck Converter, Prevent Saturation

    Homework Statement I need help with part b- A buck regulator is supplied from a 12VDC source and outputs 5VDC at 4 A with a PWM switching frequency is 100 kHz. Answer the following then: a- Determine the continuous conduction mode inductance (L_CCM). b- Compute the inductance for the...
  25. U

    Laser Question - Axial Modes & Gain Saturation

    I am studying laser physics at the moment and there is something that confuses me. The laser output consists of the central laser mode and some axial modes due to constructive interference in the optical cavity. At first there is a high enough population inversion and while the laser works this...
  26. Z

    Is Your Steam Saturated or Superheated?

    hi guys can you tell, how to know if steam is saturated or superheated?
  27. E

    Effect of saturation on transformer inductance

    Hi all How is the inductance affected when the transformer core has reached saturation? I can not seem to get my head around it, and I hope someone can help me understand it, thanks. Kind wishes
  28. EddieP

    B Transformer core saturation- is this core saturating?

    Please excuse me if this is a very basic question, but I am just hoping someone can enlighten me on something. I am using the program FEMM to simulate a transformer. Unfortunately, I am unable to find data on the BH Curve of the material I’m using for the core, and I am worried that my...
  29. W

    Maximum value of gain if tranistor not to be saturated

    Homework Statement Homework EquationsThe Attempt at a Solution I don't know how to calculate part C) of the question. I'm unsure what saturation of a transistor refers too.
  30. M

    Saturation line for a given substance

    "The saturation line for a given substance is the combination of temperature and pressure where 100% vapor exists. At any point below this line, there will be a mixture of vapor and liquid, until a point is reached when only the liquid phase exists." I don't understand above passage from...
  31. R

    MAR-6 MMIC amplifier chain saturation?

    Hello. I have devolopped a line amplifier with 3 x MAR-6 MMIC. Normal daisy chain is : antenna followed by a LNA which is followed by my line-amp. If nothing is connected at the input ofLNA, all 3 Mar-6 have normal operating voltage ie 3.5 V and resulting noise is very low (seen with a 100 MHz...
  32. B

    I What is saturation magnetization

    Hi guys, I recently performed an experiment, in which I found the B-H hysteresis loops for four ferromagnetic materials. I've attached a graph of my results for one alloy in the link below, where the labels are the saturation magnetization for each driving voltage. http://imgur.com/a/2H246 My...
  33. Sheroff

    Which Pressure Gauge Determines Saturation Temperature in a Closed Loop Pipe?

    water is flowing in the closed looped pipe equipped with preheater. there are pressure and temperature gauges before the preheater and after the preheater. which pressure gauge should i use to know whether the outlet preheater temperature has reached the saturation temperature?
  34. D

    Question about MOSFET Saturation region

    Ok, so I've read around and have become quite confused with, not only the terminology about whether a device is in linear or saturation or ohmic or active region, but now my whole concept of mosfets is on the brink of breaking down! This is my understanding. In the attached picture, the...
  35. I

    Calculating saturation and dew point given pressure and temperature

    Hi guys and gals. Hobbyist, not a student. I've had great input here in the past. Thank you in advance for any direction and help figuring this out. -Seth- 1. Homework Statement I'd like to learn how to calculate relative humidity, saturation, and dew point under differing pressures and...
  36. Ravi Singh choudhary

    Vapour pressure vs saturation pressure; too much confusion

    It was only the psychrometry came; I read about vapour pressure is equal to the saturation pressure at 100% relative humidity. While before even in the textbooks both terms are used frequently as same. I fully understood what saturation pressure is; learned during phase change phenomenon of...
  37. romsofia

    A Misunderstanding gluon saturation?

    After attending a seminar, a confusion arose. I attempted to ask the speaker the question, but it seems that my question may not be well posed, so I'll try here. As I understand it, gluon saturation are places we expect there to be gluons based on some transverse momentum after our...
  38. S

    Gas (DO) saturation under pressure in water

    I understand that pure water that's being aerated will only take up just so much dissolved oxygen (DO) and that that depends on the temperature of the water. I see ranges of 14 ppm at close to freezing and around 6 ppm at 50 C as normal maximums. I understand, too, that you can temporarily...
  39. F

    Question about magnet flux and saturation in a motor

    There are 2 primary flux paths in a permanent magnet brushless DC motor. One from the north face of a magnet to the stator through the coils/windings then into the south pole of the adjacent magnet. The other flux path would be from the backside of the magnets through the rotor metal they are...
  40. ania3900

    Seeking Expert for H2-Rich Water Saturation Tool Project

    I would like to make a tool (a saturator) for H2-rich water. I would like to use a saturation method (mixing/babbling H2 gas into water). Could anyone help with this? The purpose is for drinking. my final product must be a water with neutral ph and without any metals/minerals. I do not want to...
  41. Nader AbdlGhani

    Ketones Saturation: Acetone CH3COCH3

    Are ketones saturated ? for example , Acetone ( CH3COCH3 ) my question is aroused by a question in the General Secondary Education Certificate Chemistry exam here in Egypt , as the question there was : How many moles of hydrogen molecules are required to react with one mole of : 1) Acetone. 2)...
  42. K

    Limiting Output Voltage of the Opamp to avoid saturation

    Problem: my photo diode receives pulses of width 10ns-150ns and repeating at rate of 1Hz-50KHz the current from photo diode depending on incident light can go from 10nA-100mA, in a nutshell, my application tries to digitalize the analog pulses for pulse width measurement so i have 'only' two...
  43. G

    Saturation and pinch off in enhancement mosfets

    Hello! Is there a difference between satutation and pinch off in nmos transistors? Because my research in the internet for Mosfet pinch off leave me think that there is no difference between the two. Which confuses me, because pinch off means that there is no current at all, and saturation means...
  44. T

    Transistor current gain in saturation mode

    Hi, I want to operate my transistor as a switch. I am using this one Datasheet: http://www.farnell.com/datasheets/1868820.pdf In the data sheet, it says the DC current gain hfe = 110 which I am assuming that's for the linear operating region ?, so if my hfe is less than 110 then will it be in...
  45. R

    I Velocity saturation and mobility in metals and semiconductor

    Hi, Lately, I've been trying to compare and understand conduction properties of metals and semiconductors. However, there are two question on my mind that I'm still trying to figure out. Maybe someone here might be able to provide some clues. 1. It is known that a linear increase of the...
  46. uri segal

    CO2 saturation in saline water

    i am studying a system of dissolved CO2. it is in oversaturation, and NOT in equilibrium. but i don't know how to express its saturation level. all i know is the molar fraction of CO2 that escapes after reaching equilibrium. how can i calculate that?
  47. S

    Why do we have a saturation current in photoelectric effect?

    I had this question popped into my mind when I was reading this topic one day. In the photoelectric experiment, when light, having frequency greater than the threshold frequency, falls on a metal, electrons are emitted. Since electrons emitted are of different energies (I presume it's because...
  48. E

    How do I take results from an exponential saturation curve?

    Homework Statement I have been working on a lab report recently in which I took some data and then further used this data to gather results. I was plotting magnetic flux density as a function of current, this turned out to be an exponential saturation curve. I plotted this curve using a...
  49. P

    Saturation vapour pressure equation formula

    Pws=1000⋅e[[52.58]-[6790.5/T]-[5.028lnT]] T= temprerature in Kelvin Pws= Saturation vapour pressure I plugged in my temperature to the formula in Kelvin, I couldn't arrive at the correct answer. How do you get the e value of the equation (superscript above). My problem could be the trigonometry...
  50. Soumalya

    Adiabatic Saturation Process of Moist Air

    I am facing some overwhelming doubts while trying to study 'Psychrometrics'.Currently I am bamboozled trying to understand the process of adiabatic saturation of moist air. Some of the textbooks claim that a true adiabatic saturation process proceeds along the line of constant enthalpy of moist...