What is International: Definition and 208 Discussions

International law, also known as public international law and law of nations, is the set of rules, norms, and standards generally accepted in relations between nations. It establishes normative guidelines and a common conceptual framework for states across a broad range of domains, including war, diplomacy, trade, and human rights. International law aims to promote the practice of stable, consistent, and organized international relations.The sources of international law include international custom (general state practice accepted as law), treaties, and general principles of law recognized by most national legal systems. International law may also be reflected in international comity, the practices and customs adopted by states to maintain good relations and mutual recognition, such as saluting the flag of a foreign ship or enforcing a foreign legal judgment.
International law differs from state-based legal systems in that it is primarily—though not exclusively—applicable to countries, rather than to individuals, and operates largely through consent, since there is no universally accepted authority to enforce it upon sovereign states. Consequently, states may choose to not abide by international law, and even to break a treaty. However, such violations, particularly of customary international law and peremptory norms (jus cogens), can be met with coercive action, ranging from military intervention to diplomatic and economic pressure.
The relationship and interaction between a national legal system (municipal law) and international law is complex and variable. National law may become international law when treaties permit national jurisdiction to supranational tribunals such as the European Court of Human Rights or the International Criminal Court. Treaties such as the Geneva Conventions may require national law to conform to treaty provisions. National laws or constitutions may also provide for the implementation or integration of international legal obligations into domestic law.

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  1. U

    Is the book "Fundamentals of Aerodynamics" in SI units?

    Has "international edition" or "international student edition" of Fundamentals of aerodynamics(John Anderson) SI units and what is the difference between US version? This is pdf "SI units" version, but I see english units again, page 34 for example, so what is SI units version...
  2. D

    Admissions ENS International Student selection - How to prepare?

    Hi everyone, I've completed my last year of high school and I want to start preparing for the selection to get in Ecole Normale Supérieure. Does anyone have any tips? I 've been training on IPho problems and pre IMO ones for a year now, to improve problem solving skills. Does anyone know if...
  3. jedishrfu

    B Documentary on the International Math Olympiad

    and the associated movie staring Asa Butterfield as Nathan Ellis (Daniel Lightwing in the documentary) You can find the movie on Amazon Prime Video as a Prime movie.
  4. V

    B CDC International 4 Level Travel Notice System Math Calculations

    The 4 level system categorizes international destinations at a level four if the 28 day infection rate per 100,000 > 500. The population of Costa Rica is 5,094,000. The WHO had 5,488 infections for 2/11/2022. How would you calculate the infection rate per 100,000? 5,094,000 ÷ 100,000 = 51...
  5. A

    I Portable telescopes inside the International space station (ISS)

    I would like to know what will be the visibility from the portable telescope aboard the International Space Station. What could they potentially view, and what are (at least some of) the things they are known to have looked at? Presumably they use it *inside* the ISS and not outside, and are...
  6. MRB29

    Programs Grad prospects of a current International Senior in HS

    Hello everyone, [I underline portions of the text that are most essential to my enquiry ( 2 questions at the bottom). I immensely appreciate the generous act of reading everything otherwise.] Background Info: North African, female-identifying, 16, below average ECs, no awards, no notable...
  7. G

    Admissions (international) My chances of getting into top Astrophysics programs?

    Dear All. I am an international student who is planning to apply for the Ph.D. in astrophysics in the US in the coming application cycle. I am aiming for the top astrophysics school in the US. For the top, I mean CALTECH, Princeton, MIT, Columba, JHU, Cornell ... e.t.c. I would kindly ask for...
  8. jack action

    International Harvester HT340 Turbine Tractor

    Why am I so jaded with today's technology and when I see the stuff they made in the past, I feel like a kid in a candy store? This is a replica of an experimental turbine tractor from 1960. Got more flaws than advantages, but boy, does it look cool! source...
  9. E

    Admissions Perimeter Scholar International 2021 Admissions

    Hi, I applied for the PSI masters program, but haven't heard back from them at all. My application status still says "in review". Anyone else in the same situation? I'm expecting a rejection, especially since I haven't been interviewed. But having no closure and feedback in such a long time is...
  10. W

    WhatsApp : Adding International Phone for Contact

    Hi All, I am trying to add a new contact from WhatsApp that requires an international phone. I have done this a few times without problem, but that was way back. Now when I enter the contact and try to call, I get an error message to the effect that the number cannot be reached. I've been...
  11. phoenix-anna

    I Correcting General Relativity Effect on Atomic Time

    The International Bureau of Weights and Measures combines the readings of 450 atomic clocks around the world to obtain a time standard with sub-nanosecond accuracy. These clocks run at different rates - a clock at 1 km of altitude gains about 7 ns a day compared to one at sea level due to the...
  12. S

    Are ICTP and NORDITA international institutions (like CERN)?

    Are ICTP and NORDITA really international institutions about physics (like CERN) or are they actually an Italian and a Swedish organization respectively?
  13. T

    BSc in Meteorology with no experience -- Is it reasonable to look for international jobs?

    Summary:: I'm a portuguese citizen, holding a BSc in Meteorology, Oceanography and Geophysics, and I've been applying for job opportunities related to weather forecasting, internationally. I have no experience in it whatsoever, and I would probably require sponsoring. Is it reasonable to...
  14. BillTre

    The International Space Station as a Human Abode

    The NY Times, on the 20th anniversary (on Halloween) of the ISS being continuously occupies, published an article (with lots of pictures and a really cool time line) showing what the inside of the ISS is like. Duct tape on the ISS (didn't see any WD-40): Galley: Science stuff:
  15. P

    New Visa Restrictions on International Students

    What are your thoughts on this new ruling from the administration limiting the visa term for international students? Is there any way this can be stopped like the previous one was (about international students leaving the country if they take all in person classes during the fall)? This is the...
  16. atyy

    International students may need to leave US if their universities transition to online-only learning

    https://edition.cnn.com/2020/07/06/politics/international-college-students-ice-online-learning/index.html International students may need to leave US if their universities transition to online-only learning
  17. H

    Engineering International Renewable Energy

    For members of this forum that live outside of the United States: have you seen a boom in Renewable Energy? Do you know of universities that specialize in Renewable Energy, are there companies on the cutting edge of this field?
  18. Wrichik Basu

    Quick question: ISD codes and international roaming

    Suppose a person goes from his homeland to some other country. He has a phone number registered in his homeland. Now, someone from his homeland (or any country except his destination) wants to call him over the phone. What ISD code should be used - the one of the person's homeland, or that of...
  19. gleem

    6th International Academy of Astronautic Conference, Livestreamed

    If you have the time to watch what I have seen today is very interesting. Discussions on detecting a dealing with possible hazardous asteroids. https://sservi.nasa.gov/event/2019-iaa-planetary-defense-conference-live-stream/ Going on now Monday 5:15 pm EST
  20. T

    Programs Viability of International Degrees (from the US perspective)

    At the moment, I am accepted to a few universities for statistics and data science programs (I was told there were a fair number of data scientists on this forum and the question applies more generally as well). One of these programs is in Finland at the University of Helsinki. I'm incredibly...
  21. D

    Studying Competing in the International Physics Olympiad

    As I stated in the title, I'm trying to compete at the physics Olympiad and hopefully walk away with a decent ranking. I am currently a sophomore at a mediocre high school; I'm taking this Olympiad physics class for preparation. The course is once a week for 3 hours that is covering...
  22. Y

    Other Gap Year Physics Research for an International Student?

    Just got rejected by nearly all of my grad schools (one hasn't reply but the chance is pretty small). The funding is super harsh this year in my field and even worse for a student from China. Is there any way for an international student to take a gap year for physics research in the U.S? ( My...
  23. F

    Calculating the Hill sphere of the International Space Station

    Homework Statement [/B] The International Space Station (ISS) has a mass of 400,000 kg and orbits 408 km above the Earth’s surface. The ISS is 109 m across. Homework Equations : [/B] R=a(semimajoraxis) cubedroot(m2/3M1)The Attempt at a Solution : [/B] ive tried multiple ways with multiple...
  24. mohamadharris96

    Studying Scholarships for international Undergraduate students

    Hi, First of all, sorry for the title that sounds like a clickbait. Wasn’t intend to but well.. Don’t really have idea for a good title. Anyway, I need some help. I’ve struggling for a year now, wasting every bit of my time fighting for some science scholarship to study for Bachelor degree...
  25. Monoxdifly

    MHB International Notations for Number Sets

    Okay, so I know that the international notations for the set of natural numbers, whole numbers, rational numbers, real numbers, and complex numbers are N, Z, Q, R, and C, respectively. However, what are the international notations for the set of integers (natural numbers and zero), even numbers...
  26. ISamson

    International collaboration in scientific research

    Hello, I have been wondering how it is possible for us to encourage international scientific research collaboration. I mean what can governments, normal people and research groups do to encourage it? I value your thoughts. Thank you.
  27. W

    Perception of Intl Journal of Greenhouse Gas Control - Impact Factor 4

    The international Journal of Greenhouse Gas Control. It has an Impact Factor of around 4, but what's the perception? Is it respected? Is it considered a good journal? There isn't a qualitative judgment online. My boss seems to look down on it, but it has a good impact factor.
  28. Arceus74

    Engineering Aerospace Engineering for an International student (Advice)

    Greetings, I'm a BE Mechanical Undergraduate and I'm in my third year right now! I have a great passion for Space but ultimately I choose mechanical due to the plethora of career choices and I had a great liking for UAV's(I have a Diploma in UAV design and a Diploma in Astrophysics) Now I have...
  29. smodak

    Quantum Sakurai International Edition Missing Chapter

    This is regarding Sakurai Napolitano's Modern Quantum Mechanics 2nd Edition (as opposed to the revised edition). It seems that the chapter 8 on the Relativistic Quantum Mechanics is missing from all Pearson International Editions (printed in Indian subcontinent or Malaysia/Thailand [Person New...
  30. bdolle

    Physics International High School Teacher

    Hey guys, I'm from the US and 28 years young. Was riding a motorcycle through Bali and met a guy from the UK who told me he teaches math at the international high school in Bali, but taught in other Asian countries as well. Work for 9 months, vacation for 3 months and get to live abroad. Sounds...
  31. J

    Physics Paid physics Internships for international students

    Hi there, I am looking for a paid physics internship for undergraduate international students in US and Europe. The internship should be in experimental high energy physics or Astrophysics.
  32. A

    Schools Can I get into grad school with such a low GPA

    Hey, I'm an Electrical and Computer Engineering senior, studying at the American University of Beirut, one of the top schools in the region. I have recently realized that I really want to go to graduate school and study theoretical computer science, however, due to a general lack of motivation...

    Programs Online degree for international students with financial aids

    Hi, everyone I am from Egypt where education is not good at all so, I am using MOOCs a lot I have just know about online degrees and I want to ask if there are online degree for international students with financial aids are these really matter and considerable for a scholarship ?? if...
  34. T

    Other Wiley International Edition Review

    Hi guys, some time ago i tried to purchase some books coming from the cheap "Pearson International Edition" and i found that they are horrible, chapters are messed up and weird stuff is everywhere in the book. Now i want to buy a book from the cheap "Wiley International Edition", it looks like...
  35. O

    Book on thermodynamics for International Physics Olympiad?

    Hi! I'm a junior in high school studying for the IPhO and I've started learning thermodynamics as part of my preparation. I have a guide to the exam that says things like this will be tested: Carnot engine Kirchhoff's law Wien's law Stefan's law Stefan-Boltzmann law Newton's law of cooling...
  36. Peter25samaha

    Other International math and physics high school books

    I want to learn high school physics and math but using the international curriculum I want to see everything taught at high school in those books from grade 9 to 12 any suggestion ?
  37. R

    Other Preparing for The International Physics Olympiad

    i want to know how much calculus and physics i should know and is it allow to use graphing calculator .
  38. Sophia

    Are You Ready to Celebrate International Women's Day?

    Dear sisters of the PF community, I wish you happy international women's day! Take time to celebrate your achievements and think of all the things in which we are superior to men :-DDD
  39. F

    International Change Electric Charge Day

    Hello. What would you think of the international scientific community calling to change all negatively charged particles to positive and vice versa? Do you think there's a circumstance where we should switch or should have switched? The only reason I brought this up is that it came up when...
  40. P

    Oregon State VS Arizona State for physics undergrad?

    I'm an international transfer student applying for UW Madison, Arizona State and Oregon State. My first choice would be Madison, but if I'm not accepted there, I'm going to one of the other two. The problem is, I'm not sure which has a better physics program. The rankings put Oregon state...
  41. G

    UK vs USA for an international undergraduate

    I ask because I just received an offer from Cambridge and from a few great places in the US. I want to go on to do a PhD, probably in the United States. Finance isn't an issue. In your experience, does being from a place in the UK (albeit as great as Cambridge) put one at an automatic...
  42. Bcsantos

    International Student- Can I get a scholarship for masters?

    Hello Everyone, I am a 3r year physics student, and I am finishing my undergrad in Brazil. But I want to go to Canada to do my masters. However, I need a scholarship which covers my fees and basics needs, otherwise I cannot afford on my own. My options are: University of Waterloo, Perimeter...
  43. I

    Indicator for international accepetance rate

    Is the ratio of tuition rates for international to domestic a good indicator of the relative difficulty for an international student to get admitted to a particular school compared to a domestic one, all other factors kept constant?
  44. K

    PhD's in Physics in the UK for International Students

    Dear all, I am reaching the end of my 4 year integrated masters degree in Physics at Imperial College London. I expect to graduate with a low to medium first class and have taken theoretical modules throughout. I am interested in theoretical physics and quantum optics and want to do a PhD but...
  45. J

    220V Split Phase Generator for International Use

    I am trying to convert a 240/120V 60Hz genset for international use, specifically for China at the moment. I need 50 Hz, which I can achieve by slowing the engine down and making the necessary changes to the voltage regulator in the generator. I can also adjust my Line-to-Line voltage to the...
  46. Dayman

    Summer Internships (international)

    I'm a Junior International Student studying Physics and Econ at the University of Texas at Austin, just wondering if anyone here got into CERN, Fermi Lab or the UCLA internship(or other physics internship open to internationals!), what was your resume/gpa/credentials like when you applied? Just...
  47. B

    Why don't I get international internships? (Volvo, Nissan)

    I'm from eastern part of Europe. Does that make me less likely to get international internships/jobs in England or USA? I've been rejected several times by Volvo and Nissan. There's no way I'm under-qualified already having >1 year industrial working experience and enrolled in master production...
  48. HeisenbergGER

    Plan for study in the US as an international student

    Hello dear forum community, I am a German student, currently engaged in my last year of high school. I am planning to study in the US after I completed my A-Levels. Since I am very interested in physics and engineering, pursuing a career in those field would appeal to me the most. I managed to...
  49. P

    PGRE is a must for international students for Canada?

    I've recently completed a four year honours undergraduate degree (Mphys-astrophysics) at university of Hertfordshire, UK with 2:1 classification. And I'm planning to apply for MSc/PHD in HEP at a Canadian university. I was wondering if Canadian universities are 'too strict' on PGRE scores...
  50. S

    Admissions Applying for a Masters or a PhD as an international student

    Hi there, I am a citizen of Bangladesh, an underdeveloped country in South East Asia. I completed two years of my BSc at Imperial College London, UK from 2009 to 2011. Then, I dropped out due to family problems and spent two years outside academia from 2011 to 2013. In 2013, I enrolled at a...